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Guest Post: Here’s Why We Must Care About Shadow Banking

Tyler Durden's picture





 

Readers are well aware, that when it comes to big picture economic topics, one of our favorite themes is the gradual disintegration of Shadow Banking (discussed previously in detail here and here). The main reason for this is that the shadow banking system, while materially larger than traditional bank liabilities ($17 vs $13 trillion), is collapsing at a whopping $4 trillion a year annualized rate. What this implies for credit money, and for the Fed's limited reaction arsenal is hopefully all too clear. Yet as we have a habit of jumping into slightly advanced topics, here is an informative introductory post written by Dave Friedman of Wall St. Cheat Sheet (the first of three) covering some of the fundamentals of this arguably most critical for the great deflation/hyperinflation debate topic.

Here’s Why We MUST Care About Shadow Banking

by Dave Friedman of Wall St. Cheat Sheet

A new paper argues that the so-called “shadow banking” system is partially to blame for the recession, and it proposes some regulatory reforms not presently addressed in the Dodd-Frank legislation.

Given the complex nature of the topic, this blog post will be the
first in a series of three posts examining the various issues the paper
raises. This blog post will focus on what the shadow banking system is
and how it came to be, the second blog post will focus on why we should
care about the shadow banking system, and the third will focus on
proposed regulatory reforms.

The paper is written by two Yale School of Management professors, Gary Gorton and Andrew Metrick.
Its principal claim is that there are certain features of the shadow
banking system which caused problems in the financial markets over the
past three years, but which have not been addressed by any current
legislation, and therefore need attention. They write:

In its broadest definition, shadow banking includes
familiar institutions [such] as investment banks, money-market mutual
funds, and mortgage brokers; rather old contracts, such as sale and
repurchase agreements (“repo”); and more esoteric instruments such as
asset-backed securities (ABS), collateralized-debt obligations (CDOs),
and asset-backed commercial paper (ABCP).

They further explain the reasons for the rise in shadow banking:

One force came from the supply side, where a series of
innovations and regulatory changes eroded the competitive advantages of
banks and bank deposits. A second force came from the demand side,
where demands for collateral for financial transactions gave impetus to
the development of securitization and the use of repo as a money-like
instrument. Both of these forces were aided by court decisions and
regulatory rules that allows securitization and repo special treatment
under the bankruptcy code.

So, there are three main components of the shadow banking system,
which I will briefly review below: money market mutual funds (MMMFs),
securitization, and the repo market.

Money market mutual funds provide short-term liquidity to financial
intermediaries, but are not regulated in the same way as banks are
regulated.  Money market mutual funds seek to maintain a net asset value of $1.00 per share; prior to September 2008, no money market mutual fund, save one, “broke the buck.”

Gorton and Metrick note that “MMMFs were a response to interest-rate
ceilings on demand deposits (Regulation Q).” More information on
Regulation Q, which has since been repealed, can be found here.
In short, since banks were prohibited by law from paying interest
rates above a certain ceiling, the private market developed alternative
vehicles for large investors to manage short-term liquidity needs,
namely, money market mutual funds, and so these vehicles operated
outside the regulatory purview of the FDIC and other banking regulators.
Further, the government’s response in the midst of the crisis was to
guarantee these unregulated investment vehicles:

the government made good on the implicit promise [of
MMMFs maintaining their $1.000 per share value] by explicitly
guaranteeing MMMFs, and it may not be credible for the government to
commit to any other strategy in the future. As long as MMMFs have
implicit and free government backing, they will have a cost advantage
over other insured deposits.

The paper defines securitization as:

the process by which traditionally illiquid loans are
sold into the capital markets. This is accomplished by selling large
portfolios of loans to special purpose vehicles (SPVs), legal entities
that issue rated securities in the capital markets, securities that are
linked to the loan portfolios.

An originating firm lends money to a number of borrowers….[Then] a
portfolio of loans is selected for the purpose of securitization. This
step is the “pooling” of the loans into a portfolio. The portfolio is
then sold to an SPV….The SPV finances the purchases of these loans by
selling rated securities in the capital markets. These securities,
called tranches, are ranked by seniority and have ratings reflecting
that. The whole process takes the loans that traditionally would have
been held on-balance sheet by the originating firm and creates
marketable securities that can be sold and traded via the off-balance
sheet SPV.

As with MMMFs, securitization is a process that occurs outside of the
regulatory purview of the banks’ regulators, yet is essentially a
banking function, in that it provides a source of liquidity to the
entity which previously had the loans (assets) on its balance sheet.

Finally, repurchase agreements, colloquially called “repo” are
agreements which allow borrowers to use a financial security as
collateral in order to get a loan at a fixed rate; it is another source
of liquidity and is, again, outside the purview of banking regulators.
The paper notes that the repo market grew because of

the rapid growth of money under management by
institutional investors, pension funds, mutual funds, state and
municipalities, and nonfinancial firms. These entities hold cash for
various reasons, but would like to have a safe investment, which earns
interest, while retaining the flexibility to use the cash, in short, a
demand deposit-like product. In the last thirty years these entities
have grown in size and become an important feature of the financial
landscape.

In short, these three products–money market mutual funds, securitized
investment vehicles, and repurchase agreements–have become sources of
liquidity for holders of large amounts of cash and they occur outside of
the “normal” banking system, and so are more or less unregulated by
traditional banking regulators. The amount of leverage used and the
opacity of the various transactions have been implicated in the
financial crisis.

The next blog post in this series will investigate why regulators,
and, more pertinently, individual investors, should care about the
shadow banking system. Finally, the third and last post will examine
proposed regulatory reforms.

 


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Wed, 09/22/2010 - 15:16 | Link to Comment Battleaxe
Battleaxe's picture

I just got word that the Fed/Treasury are taking requests for words to write in the DOW chart with their manipulations. They are limited to the letters I, L, M, N, U, V, & W though.

Wed, 09/22/2010 - 15:39 | Link to Comment Cyan Lite
Cyan Lite's picture

Mega joke fail.

Wed, 09/22/2010 - 15:59 | Link to Comment Battleaxe
Battleaxe's picture

Sorry, too many impossible letters.

 

It looks like they were trying to spell something today, but it's a little shaky and hard to make out. W-u-n-M-?

Wed, 09/22/2010 - 15:20 | Link to Comment midtowng
midtowng's picture

How can we finally kill this monster?

Wed, 09/22/2010 - 15:27 | Link to Comment Ripped Chunk
Ripped Chunk's picture

Looks like a great series. Looking forward to it.

Thanks Dave Freidman & TD

Wed, 09/22/2010 - 15:51 | Link to Comment doolittlegeorge
doolittlegeorge's picture

as you yourself report so well the BD's are getting killed.  great news for real banking?  look out barter, here we come?  so glad to know "the horse and buggy really were superior."  having seen barter first hand in New Hampshire (can the horse and buggy be far behind?) let's just say even where you think it might work it "strains personal relationships."

Wed, 09/22/2010 - 16:25 | Link to Comment breezer1
breezer1's picture

+100

Wed, 09/22/2010 - 18:39 | Link to Comment Implicit simplicit
Implicit simplicit's picture

Dodd/Frank still allowing this shit because they have their own special purpose vehicle-political bribes from the banks

Wed, 09/22/2010 - 18:45 | Link to Comment MarketTruth
MarketTruth's picture

bribes is just a very small taste of the action, once they are out of office they get cushy jobs for millions a year and/or speaking 'fees' for the companies.

Tue, 09/28/2010 - 22:22 | Link to Comment AmericaRacket
AmericaRacket's picture

Frank is in on it because if he isn't that little underage boy-whorehouse he ran in Boston will get much more publicity.  Barney is owned for life.

Wed, 09/22/2010 - 21:37 | Link to Comment jmc8888
jmc8888's picture

#2 Because it can crash the world economy into a new dark age

#3  Glass/Steagall

Or are we trying define a better circle?  Why not just draw the FUCKING CIRCLE and BE DONE WITH IT????

Oh that's right, people have sucked the cock of monetarism so long they think it's a nipple.

 

Wed, 09/22/2010 - 22:20 | Link to Comment New Revolution
New Revolution's picture

End the Federal Reserve Bank.   That stops everything.   Replace it with a Suffolk styled regional system of banks 2/5ths of which are owned by the US Treasury and subscribed to equally to the remaining shareholders and publicly traded.   The regions would then amount to the equivilant of a central bank similar to that which operated quite efficiently prior to the Federal Reserve Act of 1913.   Reinstate Glass Steagall.   Take the US Treasury debt held by the Fed and the 2B2Jails (without the Fed they collapse) and wash away about 40% to 50% of the National Debt which also washes away a lot of the money used to buy the President and Congress.   Take the money salvaged from the wrecks of the aforementioned and do an RTC on America's remaining banks.    Indict everyone who was at the March 11th luncheon at the Federal Reserve Bank in NYC in 2008 and those who aided and abeited that crime.   It's perfectly legal to do so under Federal RICO statutes.   Too simple?   Try it.   America will be back on its feet and kicking ass within 3 months.

Thu, 09/23/2010 - 07:49 | Link to Comment blindman
blindman's picture

i like it, second that motion.

Thu, 09/23/2010 - 10:50 | Link to Comment Kobe Beef
Kobe Beef's picture

great ideas. Let's get it started.

Thu, 09/23/2010 - 08:23 | Link to Comment Grand Supercycle
Grand Supercycle's picture

Short signals detected yesterday have now increased.

http://stockmarket618.wordpress.com

Sat, 09/25/2010 - 23:04 | Link to Comment CL1
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