A Bond Bull Sees More Deflation Ahead

RickAckerman's picture


[Our good friend Doug B., a financial advisor based in Boulder, CO, has done well for his clients by keeping them heavily weighted in bonds. In the essay below, he explains why he intends to stick with this strategy even though many of his peers expect a rebounding stock market to outperform fixed-incomes in the years ahead.  For Baby Boomers in particular, the deflationary trend that buttresses Doug’s strategy holds stark implications.  RA]


I was prompted to write this comment by the fact that, through Q3 of this year, the total return performance of long-term Treasury bonds has exceeded the performance of the stock market for the trailing 30-year period that began in 1981. I began my career as an “Account Executive” at Merrill Lynch in 1977 when brokers were leaving the business to drive taxicabs. It is a bit startling to think that the “benchmark risk-free long term asset” has won the race for practically the whole time.


I have had the opinion for some time that there are better risk-adjusted, total-return opportunities in the bond market than in the stock market. Consequently, I have favored bonds over stocks in my asset allocation recommendations to most clients — regardless of their risk tolerance or investment objective — since well before the stock market peaked during the Tech Bubble in 2000. For investors who have a more aggressive capital appreciation objective and higher risk tolerance, I have recommended bonds with very long maturities. For investors who are more inclined toward the stable-income and preservation-of-capital objectives that are more commonly attributed to fixed-income portfolios, I have recommended somewhat shorter maturities. In the final analysis, the prevailing economic and market conditions over the past 12 years have been extraordinarily volatile because of the extreme influence of credit bubbles. Locking in safe income in the bond market has been a great way to stay out of trouble. Recent events in the economy and the financial markets suggest that such an approach is still appropriate, looking out over an intermediate term investment horizon.


A Bond Benchmark


Bloomberg recently reported that long-term Treasury bonds have provided a greater total return than stocks for the last 30 years. The bond benchmark cited in the Bloomberg article appears to be Barclays US Treasury Long Bond Index, which captures the return for an aggregate of 20-year and longer Treasury coupon bonds. The benchmark for the stock market is the S&P 500 Index. The resulting 30-year returns are similar for bonds and stocks: 11.5% for long- term Treasury bonds and 10.8% for stocks. Over the last 12 years however, the S&P 500 has returned less than 1% per year, whereas the US Treasury Long Bond Index has returned over 9.5% per year.


The chart below was compiled by Gary Shilling and it represents the performance achieved by owning and maintaining the duration of the 25-year Treasury Strip. It does a better job of capturing the performance of the very long end of the yield curve, which has provided a dramatically higher return (19.1% per year) vs. stocks (10.8% per year) over the last 30 years.



Much can be said about the difference in performance over the last 30 years between equities and long Treasuries. Bonds provided a higher return with much less risk. Nevertheless, conventional Wall Street wisdom is that, over the long term, stocks should outperform bonds because stocks do contain more risk as an asset class than bonds. Certainly, much of the out-performance in bonds in the trailing 30 years has occurred since the stock market ran out of steam in the early part of the last decade. Late in 1999 and early 2000, stocks achieved valuation levels that were spectacular by historic standards. The dividend yield on the S&P 500 hit a low of 1.1% (see attachment) and the trailing 12-month reported P/E Ratio hit 35 times. Neither of these levels was in the same zip code as previous secular peaks. Since then, stocks have delivered negative price performance and the total return — less than 1% per year — is positive only because of dividends. On the other hand, Core CPI inflation, which is the primary determinant of long-term Treasury bond yields, has been declining continually since 1981 and has remained very consistently 2% to 3% below the long -bond yield (see chart below). Rarely have long-term Treasury Bonds been expensive relative to this primary valuation benchmark, and only for brief periods.



When presented with the track record, many pundits immediately conclude that 30 years of underperformance by stocks compared to bonds is a reason to expect equity market performance to improve. I have displayed the ubiquitous Ibbotson Chart (above), which I think is a party trick, but it has formed the graphic embodiment of the general Wall Street doctrine that “over the long haul, stocks outperform.”  In reality, 11% per year for 30 years is not bad for anything historically, be it stocks, bonds or modern art. In the case of stocks, it is especially stunning considering that stock prices were flat for the last 12 of the latest 30 year period. The fact that stock prices went parabolic from 1982 to 2000 convinced most investors that a linear reality existed, much as the belief in rising home prices became doctrine during the real estate bubble.


Here’s a relevant note from Merrill Lynch legend Bob Farrell, dated August 3, 2001:


A Secular Inflection Point?


“Change of a long term or secular nature is usually gradual enough that it is obscured by the noise caused by short-term volatility.  By the time secular trends are even acknowledged by the majority, they are generally obvious and mature.  In the early stages of a new secular paradigm, therefore, most are conditioned to hear only the short-term noise they have been conditioned to respond to by the prior existing secular condition.  Moreover, in a shift of secular or long term significance, the markets will be adapting to a new set of rules while most market participants will be still playing by the old rules.”


paradigm \ n\ 1: EXAMPLE, PATTERN; esp: an outstandingly clear or typical example or archetype.



We appear to have entered the process of mean reversion, and we must be reminded that mean reversion requires two extremes. It is not inconceivable that before the mean reversion is complete, stocks and bonds will display 30 year returns that are closer to 5% or 6%, or lower. In the case of stocks, a return to an appropriate mean over the intermediate term would require a sizable drop in prices. Coincidentally, so would a return to levels of valuation commensurate with historic bear market extremes. The dividend yield today on the S&P 500 is 2.1%. Something north of 5.5% has prevailed at normal bear market extremes in the past 86 years that are contained in the Ibbotson data (see S&P yield chart, above). It would take much more than a 50% drop in the market to bring the dividend yield down to bear market extremes. A much larger decline than that would be required over the intermediate term in order to revert the 30-year return back to 6%, which would represent a low end extreme.


This second chart from Bob Farrell displays one view of stock market valuation:



Quoting Farrell: “A return to the mean includes two extremes, not just one. One measure of valuation we consider valid is stock market capitalization as a percent of GDP.  From the 1920s to the 1990s, it only went over 80% once (1929) but since has been as high as 180% in 2000 and as low as 72% in 2008.  The current level of 110% is still high historically and only at a mid-level if you think history begins in the 1990s (see chart).”


And that leads me to thoughts on the “C” Wave. According to Bob Farrell, bear markets occur in three waves; A down, B up and finally C down. If we are headed for recession, then this latest decline phase is the beginning of the “C” Wave. In hindsight, the peak of the secular credit expansion that began at the conclusion of the Great Depression occurred in 2007 with the demise of the housing bubble. The Great Bull Market may have ended in 2000 (with Intel at $76), but the Bear Market did not begin until late 2007. That was the true secular inflection point. What happened in between was some kind of screwed up meat grinder. The “A” Wave began at the all-time highs on the S&P500 in October 2007 at 1576 and ended in March 2009 at 667. That was also the start of the “B” Wave that presumably ended in May 2011 at 1370, ushering in the current decline phase.


See-Saw Markets


Bull and bear markets display see-saw characteristics and seem to be a reflection of human nature which, generally speaking, does not change. Bob Farrell alluded to it in Rule#8: Bear markets have three stages – sharp down – reflexive rebound – a drawn-out fundamental downtrend. Dick Stoken took it a bit further:



“Because human psychology is slow to change, a broad economic move usually occurs in three stages. The first stage begins when some unexpected event shatters an overdone psychological environment. Yet, while some people respond immediately to this new lesson, most people, as they find it outside their past experience, do not believe it. They need more evidence- that is, a second stage. Typically, the majority become convinced during the second stage and therefore the psychological background changes. People begin to act differently, and their behavior soon affects the performance of the economy (my italics).”


Stoken’s Behavioral Model


Dick describes the “A” wave and the “C” Wave as impulse waves in which market participants are acting rationally in the face of disappointing fundamentals. The disbelief that occurs in the second stage allows for the “B” Wave, which is counter-trend.  Earlier, I quoted the paragraph written in 2001 by Bob Farrell pertaining to secular (long term) change because it deserves to be pinned to the wall right next to Market Rules to Remember.  He explains magnificently what the psychology of the “B” Wave is: disorientation. The “C” Wave of a secular bear market or a new paradigm occurs when investors become aware that a “new set of rules” is operative.


So what about the bond market? That bull market probably has a few years to go. For some reason, the popular focus is still on inflation and most market participants do not even know how to spell deflation. This is after the collapse in housing prices and a stock market that is lower in price than it was 12 years ago. Still, the only thing that market strategists seem to agree on is that danger lurks at the long end of the yield curve. (It is tough to lose money with that kind of sentiment.) Yes, 30-year Treasury bonds yields are down to 3%, but if they go to 2% over the near term, the total return will be much greater than the coupon. After all, we started 2011 at 4.33% and the total return on the 30 year coupon bond is 30% year to date. The long Treasury Strip is up 54%. The decline in rates can continue if Core CPI inflation continues to melt and the Fed stays on hold at 0% at the short end of the curve. Two weeks ago, the Fed lowered their forecast for GDP growth, employment and inflation through 2013. It is widely assumed that their explicit promise to hold rates at 0% through mid-2013 will have to be extended well into 2014. If we are heading into recession, Core CPI is likely to go negative (that’s right; the “D” word).


Tax-Frees Yielding 7%!


In addition to the potential in long-term Treasury bonds, Closed End Municipal Bond Funds are yielding close to 7%, tax free. Closed End Build America Bond Funds yield over 7.5% and sell at steep discounts to their net asset value and the underlying bonds have excellent call protection. Compare that to soap or hamburgers with a 3% dividend yield.


For the last four years since the bear market began, the investing public has been hoping for, and policy makers have been pushing for, a return to the old paradigm. That is to say, through a desire to bring back the good old days, there has been general acceptance of trying to solve the credit crisis and attendant economic and financial malaise with more debt and fiscal and monetary stimulus. After all, it did work (in some combination) in pulling us out of each of the recessions during the post WWII period up until now. But here we are-pushing on a string, engaged in a political revolution relative to deficit spending and the Fed is holding a water pistol. Repeated attempts to spur consumer spending through temporary policies like “cash for clunkers” and mortgage modification have been ineffective. So have other more general fiscal measures like reducing payroll taxes and extending unemployment benefits. The fact that households understand that they are over-indebted has resulted in conventional policy stimulus being rejected. In Europe, efforts to save the over-indebted peripheral countries have been similarly futile. It is becoming much more obvious that the easy road is not the one that leads to the solution. It will be a slower and longer road in every respect that will lead to the next expansion. We are not going to grow our way out of this.


Here in the New Secular Paradigm, we are just now learning that we need to play by a new set of rules. We apparently need to eliminate debt in a big way. We must return to levels of debt relative to GDP and household income that can be the base of the next secular economic expansion. Escape velocity cannot be achieved until debt levels mean-revert too. It will be the moral (and economic) equivalent of war. The compound interest table is a far more formidable foe than the Third Reich and we will be facing a federal government debt exceeding $18 trillion in the next few years. This is in addition to extreme levels of household and state and local government debt.


Baby Boomers’ Grim Reality


By a particularly evil twist of fate, the developed world’s Baby Boomers arrived on the doorstep of retirement in 2007 with a household debt/disposable income ratio exceeding 130%. That compares to a ratio of less than 30% at the end of WWII when they were being conceived. Let’s face it, we could not have timed the real estate mania any worse. Theoretically, we Boomers should be flush as we approach our 60s, but look around. The 80th percentile 57 year old household owes more in mortgage debt on their home(s) than they have in their 401Ks. So, going forward, the business of America is debt reduction. There is not, under any reasonable forecast, a growth outlook in the developed world that could trump the debt destruction that will be required for the credit collapse to come to completion. In the absence of growth, debt is eliminated via some combination of austerity and default.


The U.S. savings rate dropped from 5.3% to 3.6% in the three months ending September 2011, as the wealthy continued to save or pay down debt and the not-so-wealthy were buying gas and groceries on credit. The Supercommittee in Congress has decided to punt. Their daunting responsibility was to narrow the budget deficit through smoke, mirrors, increased taxes and cuts in entitlement spending. The politics evolved at lightning speed, leaving us to scratch our heads. But probably not for long. The winds of change are clearly blowing. It is reasonable to believe that political trends are also undergoing secular change. Why should we doubt that the American Democracy will defeat the compound interest table? We managed to prevail over every other dire threat in our history and preserve the Union. Here too, conventional wisdom is suffering from linear thinking.


What Can We Do Right?


So, what can do right? How can we avoid the hardship? How can growth return to levels where the debt can be serviced, causing inflation to increase and the Fed to tighten? I have been presented with several possibilities that come from people who are thoughtfully aware that a credit collapse is occurring. The most popular expectation is for a decoupling from the developed countries by the emerging markets. Countries like China have low debt and their enormous population is characterized by low consumer spending and high savings rates. Perhaps they can “emerge” into a level of domestic consumption that buoys the global economy even if they experience less export demand from the developed world. We can then continue to sell them more soap and hamburgers. Then there is the “killer app.” This refers most commonly to some invention like the steam engine or the Internet, but it could also be a geopolitical event — i.e., globalization or the end of a war (or two). It has to do with some unknown yet spectacular productivity enhancement that will drive the global economy. It better be really big and quick. Hope springs eternal.


I find it far more intellectually appealing to accept that we are simply overdue for a bit of winter and we need to deal with it. After all, everything that we have observed so far about the universe is cyclical. And that just brings me right back to Bob Farrell’s Market Rules to Remember.  Rule #2: “Excesses in one direction will lead to an opposite excess in the other direction” is why getting back to normal after a parabolic move requires a second excess before settling back to the mean. And yet, this is the last thing that conventional thinking typically allows for. At worst, periods of excess are expected to hold their gains (or losses) until the fundamentals catch up. More often, periods of excess are interpreted as the arrival of a “new era” in which past cyclicality has been defeated so history no longer applies.


Yields Uncorrelated


Fortunately, during the last 12 years of flat prices, the yield on the S&P 500 has doubled from 1.1% to 2.1%, catching up exclusively because dividends have gone up. But prior to 1995, the S&P 500 never traded richer than a 2.5% yield at any market peak. Current conventional thinking is either; dividend yield is an outdated valuation metric or, more popularly, 2.1% ain’t bad, considering that the 10-year Treasury only pays 2%. In fact, there is no correlation between Treasury note yields and dividend yield on the S&P 500. From 1932 through 1955, the yield on stocks was consistently above 6% while the 10-year Treasury note yield held below 2%. And yet, the pundits insist that the market is cheap today for some reason.


Returning to the issue that both stocks and bonds have achieved 10%+  total return performance annualized for the last 30 years, one has to wonder what an appropriate mean reversion target ought to be. Consider that real economic growth in the U.S. averaged less than 3.5% per year since late 1981. As the Ibbotson chart shows, core inflation has exceeded 5% in only three of the last 30 years. Further complicating the issue is that, since we have only recently (2007) entered into our credit collapse, real GDP growth for the next decade is bound to be much lower than 3.5%. Core inflation, which has been making its way down from over 13% in 1981 to less than 2% today, is likely to stick pretty close to zero for the next decade, if Japan’s experience is any guide. Low, single-digit returns (5% to 6%) may be the mean that we will be reverting to. Even during the credit expansion that was in force from the depths of the Great Depression to the peak of the housing bubble, annual total returns were around 9%.  As David Rosenberg is fond of saying, “You do the math.”


Reverting to the Mean


There are many possible scenarios for mean reversion of stock-market returns, but consider this: For the last 10 years of the current 30-year period, we have been subtracting the performance of 1972 through 1981 while we added the performance of 2002 through 2011. Both periods were remarkably flat (no price appreciation, just dividends). Going forward, we will be dropping the period starting in 1982. In 1982, the S&P 500 started the year at 123 and the dividend yield was 5.64%. Ten years later at the end of 1991, it was at 417, up 340% in price. Dividends almost doubled, but the yield had dropped to 2.91% due to the higher index price. The annualized return was more than 17.6% for those 10 years. If the market dropped in half (i.e., to 620 on the S&P 500) over the next couple of years, we would add negative 50% for 2012 and 2013 and drop off the 50% positive return from 1982 through 1983. That would lop off close to 3% from the 30-year annualized rate, to 7.2%. That would get close to the proposed mean. It would not qualify as an opposite extreme because that would require a number on the other side of 6%. If dividends stay at $26, the market will be yielding 4.2%. Nothing particularly extreme there either, but at least then, we would be getting somewhere.


Comment viewing options

Select your preferred way to display the comments and click "Save settings" to activate your changes.
cranky-old-geezer's picture



Here's another example of "inflation" and "deflation" being used the wrong way. Don't feel bad, even PhD economists use those words the wrong way.

"Inflation" and "deflation" aren't meant to describe price changes. "Inflation" describes expanding money supply relative to GDP with resulting currency debasement (losing value). "Deflation" describes shrinking money supply relative to GDP with resulting currency revaluation (gaining value).

Prices can change from inflation / deflation. Prices can also change from supply / demand factors.

For example housing prices are falling due to demand collapse, even though the currency is inflating and losing value (which would normally push prices up). Demand collapse pushing prices down is way more than currency inflation pushing prices up, resulting in prices falling overall.

People say housing prices have dropped 30% since the '08 housing collapse started. But the real loss of value is closer to 60%. Depreciating currency keeps prices from dropping 60%.

This is exactly what Bernake wanted. He wanted to hide the true collapse of housing values by printing money and debasing the currency, exactly what has happened since'08. The US dollar has lost nearly 1/3 of its value since 08.

This is clearly demonstrated in prices of things where supply and demand is steady, like food and fuel. Food and fuel prices have risen nearly 50% since '08, because the dollar has lost nearly 1/3 of its value since '08.

Today's bond market isn't about yield anymore. It's about price. Bernanke has single-handedly kept bond prices up by creating artificial demand in the market with massive bond purchases.

So yes, bonds prices have stayed up and bond funds have done well ...in nominal terms.

But how well have they done against 1/3 loss of dollar value since '08?

Doug says more deflation is coming and bonds will continue doing well.

What deflation? There hasn't been any deflation. We've had 50% INFLATION since '08, resulting in the dollar losing 1/3 of its value.

ZerOhead's picture


And nothing moves faster than scared money. Wait until that free $16.1 trillion that Bernanke printed ends up moving out of bonds into equities and commodities all at once when the 'deflation' trade ends... oh and don't forget the $10T in bank deposits plus whatever the Europeans are working on...

The Alarmist's picture

If there really was deflation in the picture, the dollars I earned last year would not be buying me 15% less food this year. Sure, I get more flat panel TV for the money this year, but how many of those can you eat?

AGuy's picture

[Flat Panel TVs] And how long will it last before it breaks? That is never factored into the hedonic adjustments. A TV purchase in the 1990's would last 10+ Years. Recent model TV's last less than 5 years before breaking.



akak's picture

"A bond bull sees more deflation ahead."

Really, Rick?  That's odd, because I see NONE anywhere!  What I DO see is currency depreciation (i.e., inflation), as well as the very real threat, if not the certainty, of vastly more of it ahead.

And just to reiterate, the collapse of an asset bubble is NOT synonymous with deflation --- and all the disingenuous bloviating in the world will not make it so, either.

ebworthen's picture

It's called STAGFLATION, as in stagnation with concurrent deflation and inflation.

No return on savings, crushed housing and property values, debauched currencies, and inflation in food and fuel that isn't counted by Alchemist Economists for CPI or COLA.

...etcetera, etcetera, etcetera...

silverserfer's picture

 Rick is still a baseball card bull as well. "baseball cards are a sound investment for wealth preservation in addition to bonds and beannie babies."  

Lazane's picture

"every investment class has its day in the sun", a new day has dawned for stacking precious metals.

dumpster's picture

oil pushing 100 is a sure sign of deflation lol

rick the whisy whasy //

inflation is printing .. which is going on all over the world .. bonds are under the thumb of fed to make it seek like no inflation ..

but things just keep going up so rick can blovate

sharkbait's picture

Real estate was a can't lose investment for a long time, until it wasn't.  Every investment class has its day(s) in the sun.  In fact since markets are cyclical, they will each have their star performance period many times.

But does the author really undestand what the DV of an 01 means?  Does he truly appreciate how fast and far bond prices can and will back up?  Are long rates going to 1% and are they going to stay there?  I think not.    There is no margin for error at current levels.  Unless you are a true believer on the deflation ( and for a protracted period) scenario.  Maybe this time is different.... as for me, I am not taking that bet

fonzanoon's picture

This is an excellent description of what has taken place being extrapolated to predict what will take place. Thats all it is.

traderjoe's picture

During the period discussed, yields moved from around 18% to 3%. Where's the same catalyst going-forward????

rbg81's picture

What is happening with European soverign debt will eventually happen to American soverign debt.  The big question is: how long will that take?  So far, we have been lucky because we are viewed as the world's last great safe haven.  So we get to borrow like PIIGS at ultra low interest rates.  Make no mistake, this is what the FED really wants--the US economy be damned.  Their #1 priority is making sure the US debt balloon doesn't burst--because when it does, it will take the world economy with it.  So, the author will seem like a genius until we eventually reach that inflection point of no return.

AGuy's picture

Well, there is a difference. Currently the ECB can't print money and monerize debt. The US already has begun debt monertization. Its seems unlike that the Fed will stand on the sidelines during a bond collapse, and its extremely probable that the Fed will continue buying debt to keep interest rates low until the dollars value reaches zero.

Its very likely that the ECB will reverse its tune and monertize debt to prevent a full European financial crisis. Merkel will change her mind as soon as Germany is backed up against a financial wall of collapse.


I can't say I agree with the author. Holding Bonds is a Lose Lose proposition:

Deflation: US Tax revenues plunge, force US gov'ts (State, Local & Federal) to default on debt obligations. If Fed Defaults, the Dollar collapses

Stagflation: (What we have now). Bond Yield become worthless, and Bond holders get burned as inflation eats there buying power. Everything slowly gets more expesive, and unemployment remains high or continues to grow for a very long time.

Inflation: Bond prices collapse, and Bond holders eat there shirts.


"So, the author will seem like a genius until we eventually reach that inflection point of no return."

Yes, Just like Lehman was King of the Financial Industry with record profits during the height of the Bubble.

rbg81's picture

The more the Fed is forced to buy UST, the more it becomes apparent that the Emperor has no clothes.  At that point, inflation takes off the the Fed basically kills the Economy trying to keep Government borrowing costs low.  But the paradox is that as more people become dependent on the Governement, political pressures will leave the Fed no choice.  Its an ugly, distorted scenario that would mean hyperinflation so (paradoxically) the Government could mask the true cost of the deficit.

In a way, we are lucky that Europe is in such bad shape.  It gives us a few years grace period and makes the Bond bulls look smart.  Anyone who has shorted UST, has lost their shirts. But it won't last forever.

Kayman's picture

" since QEs have not produced the desired effect."

Bernanke has provided the top end liquidity to save the TBTF's, even though they remain insolvent.

Objective achieved. 

And while we do the math. as long term interest rates approach zero, bond prices approach infinity... No ???

AGuy's picture

"And while we do the math. as long term interest rates approach zero, bond prices approach infinity... No ???"

No. Bonds can't really go negative, at least in any significant amount. The most a bond price can go is the value of the loan.  If I sell a $100 Bond at zero percent, the highest it can go is $100. In some instances, if there is a mad rush out of one investiment and into short term gov't debt its possible for interest rates to go slightly negative. This is when someone holding a bond that they bought sells it to someone at a negative return. But only a fool would continue to buy short term debt at negative rates.

Since Bernanke is the Fed Chief, he will not let any meaniful amount of deflation to take hold, by simply buying up illiquid assets (aka MBS, Gov't Bonds, Corp bonds, etc) to create liquidity,  stalling deflation. This causes stagflation, as the liquidity is used to speculate into tangable assets such as Precious metals, Farm land, AgraCulture commodites, Oil, etc. Liquidity created by the Fed never end up in Joe Six pack hands, which prevents any wage increases, but forces J6P to pay for more to fuel up his car, put food on the table, and  higher taxes (state, local, etc), as state/local gov'ts pass on their higher costs to taxpayers. Monertizing simply sucks the life out of J6P will enriching speculators.


Straw Dog's picture

A well reasoned argument.

Are we at the mercy of Bernanke's printer, each new iteration of QE is weaker, plus it's hard to believe the Bernank will risk a big enough QE to make difference since QEs have not produced the desired effect. Add to that the increased FED scrutiny by congress.

apberusdisvet's picture

Methinks that the municpal bond sector is about to go poof; most especially in those areas with multi-million dollar pensions for public sector union retirees and a high school graduation rate of less than 50%.

AGuy's picture

MeThinks Municpals will raise taxes and cut staff, stalling any MuniBond implosion for the near term. Yes there will be a few that default, but its like to be just a few over the next year or two. Better to bleed taxpayers dry before defaulting.

Elected officials? Damned if the default or raise taxes. Raising taxes will keep corrupt politicians out of jail, because when a local gov't goes BK, there are investigations, which can lead to prosecution. Raising taxes on the other hand, might get them booted out of office, but it will keep them out of jail, and push the problem on to the next guy that takes office.


oddjob's picture

I guess somebody has to be bullish on paper promises.

Adbuster's picture

Recommendations on Closed End Build America Bond Funds? BAB? EBABX? Others?

What bond funds could Joe Average assemble to achive a 11% ROI? My VFIIX ain't doing it...


SwingForce's picture

You are totally dependant on The Benbernakes printer-finger, you know that right? 

SMG's picture

That's what makes how this is going to play out so hard to call.  And what gives insiders an advantage.

My call is they will make the peasants suffer a while and make THEM BEG for printing.  So a period (months?) of deflation followed by hyperinflation.

Just my opinion and I am really not that smart.