Taleb On "Skin In The Game" And His Disdain For Public Intellectuals

Tyler Durden's picture

Nassim Taleb sits down for a quite extensive interview based around his new book Anti-Fragile. Whether the Black Swan best-seller is philosopher or trader is up to you but the discussion is worth the time as Taleb wonders rigorously from the basic tenets of capitalism - "being more about disincentives that incentives" as failure (he believes) is critical to its success (and is clearly not allowed in our current environment) - to his intellectual influences (and total disdain for the likes of Krugman, Stiglitz, and Friedman - who all espouse grandiose and verbose work with no accountability whatsoever). His fears of large centralized states (such as the US is becoming and Europe is become) being prone to fail along with his libertarianism make for good viewing. However, his fundamental premise that TBTF banks should be nationalized and the critical importance of 'skin in the game' for a functioning financial system are all so crucial for the current 'do no harm' regime in which we live. Grab a beer (or glass of wine, it is Taleb) and watch...


Via Redmond Weissenberger of the Ludwig von Mises Institute Of Canada,

A must see interview with Nassim Taleb

Nassim Nicholas Taleb is a former trader and hedge fund manager, a best-selling author, and a ground-breaking theorist on risk and resilience.

Taleb drew wide attention after the 2007 publication of The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable, which warned that our institutions and risk models aren’t designed to account for rare and catastrophic events. Among other things, the book cautioned that oversized and unaccountable banks using flawed investment models could bring on a financial crisis. He also warned that the government-sanctioned housing finance agencies, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, were sitting on a “barrel of dynamite.”

One year after The Black Swan was published, a global banking crisis was brought on by the very factors he identified.

Taleb doesn’t identify as a libertarian, but he often sounds like one. He has argued that we need to build a society where major actors have “skin in the game” and our public intellectuals can bloviate without subjecting the rest of us to the consequences of their bad ideas. He supported Ron Paul in the 2012 presidential election and has cited the libertarian economist Friedrich Hayek as an influence.

Taleb has called New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman “vile and harmful” and coined the phrase the “Stiglitz Syndrome” after Nobel-prize winning economist Joseph Stiglitz, which refers to the phenomenon of public intellectuals being held utterly unaccountable for their bad predictions. Paul Krugman and Paul Samuelson are among Taleb’s other Nobel laureate bête noires.

Taleb's new book - Antifragile: Things That Gain from Disorder Taleb’s new book is Antifragile: Things that Gain with Disorder, which argues that in order to create robust institutions we must allow them to build resilience through adversity. The essence of capitalism, he argues, is encouraging failure, not rewarding success.

Reason’s Nick Gillespie sat down with Taleb for a wide-ranging discussion about:

  • why debt leads to fragility (5:16);
  • the importance of “skin in the game” to a properly functioning financial system (10:45);
  • why large banks should be nationalized (21:47);
  • why technology won’t rule the future (24:20);
  • the value of studying the classics (26:09);
  • his intellectual adversaries (33:30);
  • why removing things is often the best way to solve problems (36:50);
  • his intellectual influences (39:10);
  • why capitalism is more about disincentives than incentives (43:10);
  • why large, centralized states are prone to fail (44:50);
  • his libertarianism (47:30);
  • and why he’ll never take writing advice from “some academic at Cambridge who sold 2,200 copies” (51:49).

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kaiserhoff's picture

I couldn't recognize that fraud Gillespie (my brother was a libertarian) without his fucking leather jacket.

So much career building in DC.  So few human beings.

I think I need to buy a gun's picture

how are we still running???????????????//

kaiserhoff's picture

The question is not who is running, but what, if anything, is being done.

It is not the job of the libertarian leadership to make polite cocktail conversation with the tyrants and parasites.

DoChenRollingBearing's picture

Taleb's new book is extremely good.  I have written on four of his ideas recently, probably the best place to start is the below, then if you are still interested, look at my January posts (the below introduces his antifragile idea):

"Antifragile: A New Book By N. N. Taleb"


TruthInSunshine's picture

A true Taleb related gift for the ZH noobs (ZH veterans, you've probably read it):


The New Yorker


How Nassim Taleb turned the inevitability of disaster into an investment strategy

gladwell dot com - blowing up
All Risk No Reward's picture

I have disdain for people in positions of influence who run interference for the Federal Reserve by not outing them as criminals per Section 2A of the Federal Reserve Act.

That's right, Taleb, there is no dual mandate.  All you have to do is read the mandate and you will see that it is singular and been broken for about 30 years running...

Federal Reserve Act
Section 2A. Monetary Policy Objectives

The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Open Market Committee shall maintain long run growth of the monetary and credit aggregates commensurate with the economy's long run potential to increase production, so as to promote effectively the goals of maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates.

[12 USC 225a. As added by act of November 16, 1977 (91 Stat. 1387) and amended by acts of October 27, 1978 (92 Stat. 1897); Aug. 23, 1988 (102 Stat. 1375); and Dec. 27, 2000 (114 Stat. 3028).]

I highlighted the singular Fed mandate.  You can read on to learn about the expected results of PROPERLY CONFORMING TO THE SINGULAR fED MANDATE.

Now that we've sliced through the Orwellian disinformation (that Taleb will never talk about in a future article for fear of... ???), let's look at what the Fed actually did...

Look at the first chart...


"exponential to" is contradictory to "commensurate with" by definition.

Time for Taleb and all the other fake commentators to duck and cover and pretend the bankster Matrix false narrative is reality.

Oh, dividing and conquering is all good and gets pats on the head from "the cartel," right Taleb?

GetZeeGold's picture



Critical thinkers.....send them to the great white north and let the dieing polar bear population rip their heads off. Once that happens I will lose my disdain.


No fawning White House press corp members we're hurt in the process of this posting......and their reactionary talking points bulletin will be handed out tomorrow. Go get'em tigers.

All Risk No Reward's picture

Note the person who down marked the post couldn't articlulate why.

It is probably a Taleb fan who got all emotional instead of acting rationally and asking, "ya, how come the Fed breaks the law, lies about its mandate and nobody, including Taleb, will talk about it publicly?"

Nope, that though hurts too much, so the lying criminals will have their way with an ignorant society.

And when this all burns, guys like Taleb, and all the other controlled pundits will be as much to blame as everyone else...  the people demand to be hoodwinked and these people are more than obliged to wink that hood.

Again, the emotional "fight or flioght" response is manipulated by the TPTB as is the education system so that critical thinking is suppressed and the almighty "appeal to authority" is ingrained.

It doesn't matter if it is establishment or oppostion - Vladimir Lenin said, "the best way to control the opposition is to lead (ot fund) it."

The establishemnt is wrong.

The promoted "opposition" is wrong as well.

"Free market" can't work when criminals are running the system.

The criminals are smarter and more Machiavellian than the sheeple - so the rule and most sheeple suck up to them - both estasblishmrent (banker financed) and controlled opposition (banker financed).

All Risk No Reward's picture

"Rome burns" (being systematically bankrupted by criminals in power) and Taleb has "investment advice."

The game is changing people.  The criminal authoritatians aren't going to let you "invest" your way out of this.

Taleb's whole worldview is a distraction.  That's why the system has allowed you to know his name.

Bread and circus.

nom deplune's picture

Critical thinkers.....send them to the great white north and let the dieing polar bear population rip their heads off. Once that happens I will lose my disdain.


No fawning White House press corp members we're hurt in the process of this posting......and their reactionary talking points bulletin will be handed out tomorrow. Go get'em tigers.



lewy14's picture

That's awesome. One thing though - you really can't play Taleb's game the way it's written.

The deep out-of-the-money options are too expensive. (At least the puts are).

The real geniuses seem to find the self-funding hedges (e.g. Magnetar).

What's the Magnetar trade on the Euro collapsing? On the Yen collapsing?

I'm wondering if the right bet isn't simply long OOM options, but to bet on the VIX term structure inverting. Can that be done profitably?

tradewithdave's picture

Great point. Hoping someone weighs in on this. Does the "long tail" have a barb at the end of it?


Blues Traveler's picture

Good commentary.....and unfortunatley the VIX is a hooker w powerful clients

Blues Traveler's picture

Good commentary.....and unfortunatley the VIX is a hooker w powerful clients

Go Tribe's picture

Taleb is a one-hit wonder. Like a lot of the pundits who called the crash. Nothing they say today is meaningful.

Landrew's picture

HT DoChen! Thank you so much for recommending the book! I think the book has changed my life and bought understanding to one of my greatest failures in trading this last year. He is a true genius and I wish somehow he could lead our country to a better future than we have in store. I think if he were to tell what he thinks about the future of our great country it would scare even the most informed of us. Thanks again, I owe you more than one:) It's a book that you really have to read and if you are very smart read it twice!

Freewheelin Franklin's picture

I couldn't recognize that fraud Gillespie (my brother was a libertarian) without his fucking leather jacket.


His jacket is having an affair with one Matt Welch's ties.

lolmao500's picture

How many statists ever STARTED a business?? Not a single one.

All these ``the state knows best`` scumbags don't have skin in the game... well they think they don't... but really, they do.

NeedtoSecede's picture

Ya, these fuckers have skin in the game. My skn, your skin, and several generations of our decendent's skin. But none of their own.

I don't have words to describe how much I loathe the gooberment and all their useful idiots in Media-Academia Complex.

Hey, did I just invent a new ZH acronym? MAC. Anyway, they still make me throw up no matter what you call them.

JOYFUL's picture

Thanks to the evolution of what US Army Major(retired)and self-described Satanist(Temple of Set)Michael Aquino calls MindWar, you don't have the words to describe how much you loath "gooberment and all their useful idiots in Media-Academia Complex" because the behavioural controls originally developed to use upon 'foreign' enemies have now been employed upon 'domestic' ones...aka, the Merikan citizenry. And therefore, you can never get  quite close to understanding just what exactly it is to loath.

But thanks to the work of one of the very few resistor intellects left at large, it is possible to pull this group out of the shadows they cultivate, and define who and what they are, so as to eliminate their effective hold upon the consciousness of the citizen-victims of their depredations. Vis,

"The rise of a de-ethnicized non-Jewish managerial elite that rejects traditional cultural institutions—as exemplified by Bill Clinton and Hillary Clinton—and interwoven with a critical mass of ethnically conscious Jews and other ethnic minorities is an enormously important fact of our current political life."


The war to disestablish the specifically European nature of the U.S. was fought on several fronts. The main thrusts of Jewish activism against European ethnic and cultural hegemony have focused on three critical power centers in the United States: The academic world of information in the social sciences and humanities, the political world where public policy on immigration and other ethnic issues is decided, and the mass media where “ways of seeing” are presented to the public."

Both quoted passages are from Kevin MacDonald's The Culture of Critique, a masterful exploration of the topics which are forbidden to us to discuss now, when both social and biological science have been handed over to the frankist-sabbatean crypto-jewish overlords.

Taleb is most certainly on to something when he discussed the cultural asset of dissuasion, or 'punishment'...but it's both a sad and telling mark of our wounded Western psyche and civilization that even people as bright as the Tylers should describe that trait as an incipient Libertarianism...said cult being but another example of talmudist-cabbalistic hegelian dialectical control all sides of the opposition strategy. In truth, such a cultural attribute is more fairly posited as belonging to the Europoid race and culture...not to a phony hebraic capital  or liberty ism...both buzzwords designed to hide more than they reveal about those who employ them.

MacDonald hits this fact on the nose, with scholarly precision:

"Recent research by evolutionary economists provides fascinating insight on the differences between individualistic cultures versus collectivist cultures. Fehr and Gächter (2002) found that people will altruistically punish defectors in a “one-shot” game—a game in which participants only interact once and are thus not influenced by the reputations of the people with whom they are interacting. This situation therefore models an individualistic culture because participants are strangers with no kinship ties.

The surprising finding was that subjects who made high levels of public goods donations tended to punish people who did not even though they did not receive any benefit from doing so. Moreover, the punished individuals changed their ways and donated more in future games even though they knew that the participants in later rounds were not the same as in previous rounds. Fehr and Gächter suggest that people from individualistic cultures have an evolved negative emotional reaction to free riding that results in their punishing such
people even at a cost to themselves—hence the term “altruistic punishment.”

Essentially Fehr and Gächter provide a model of the evolution of cooperation among individualistic peoples..... Their results are least applicable to groups such as Jewish groups or other highly collectivist groups which in traditional societies were based on extended kinship relationships, known kinship linkages, and repeated interactions among members. In such situations, actors know the people with whom they are cooperating and anticipate future cooperation because they are enmeshed in extended kinship networks, or, as in the case of Jews, they are in the same group.

Europeans are thus exactly the sort of groups modeled by Fehr and Gächter and Henrich et al: They are groups with high levels of cooperation with strangers rather than with extended family members, and they are prone to market relations and individualism. On the other hand, Jewish culture derives from the Middle Old World culture area characterized by extended kinship networks and the extended family.

This suggests the fascinating possibility that the key for a group intending to turn Europeans against themselves is to trigger their strong tendency toward altruistic punishment by convincing them of the evil of their own people. Because Europeans are individualists at heart, they readily rise up in moral anger against their own people once they are seen as free riders and therefore morally blameworthy—a manifestation of their much stronger tendency toward altruistic punishment deriving from their evolutionary past as hunter gatherers."

The Clintons, Aquinos, and their ilk are the public face of this new group whom your acronym seeks to personalise - race traitors and willing syncophants to the moneymasters who own them...truly scum deserving of the severest of 'altruistic punishment' for 'free riders'

Ghordius's picture

"groups with high levels of cooperation with strangers rather than with extended family members, and they are prone to market relations and individualism" - fine, but does this describe "all europeans" or isn't it more a matter of degrees, with one extreme a feature of WASPs, particularly the individualism?

A popular theory stated that individualism is stronger the more you travel west, in europe, while cooperation increases if you travel north.


"Taleb doesn’t identify as a libertarian, but he often sounds like one."

Well, he sounds reasonable, but Classical Liberals could claim him as well. Which is a funny thing to debate on a living person...

JOYFUL's picture

The distinction you make between 'índividualism' and 'cooperation' leaves the detached observer with the impression that you employ the two terms as diametric ....

I would suggest that they are instead best viewed as concomitant - the stronger the sense of individuality, the greater the capacity to reach out without fear or unfounded aggression. Cooperation comes naturally to the individuated persona, who easily discerns self interest and the interest of the 'other' as being potentially parallel. Certain shadowy subgroups have imposed a more jaundiced outlook  upon the polity with a view to advancing their own collective interests.

In the original quotation as referenced, the correct context was individual versus collective. It may be compelling evidence of the curiously hamstrung continental mindset that these very different terms should be conflated.

malek's picture

While you make some very good points, two remarks:

- "that rejects traditional cultural institutions—as exemplified by Bill Clinton and Hillary Clinton—"

Smells like rational corner-cutting - how can you be sure they are not just posturing?

- "another example of talmudist-cabbalistic hegelian dialectical control all sides of the opposition strategy"

I am willing to disentangle quite some associations, but this babble seems to be pure propaganda. ("Demand the perfect solution, and if the opponent cannot come up with one, denigrate his opinion as utter invalid.")

JOYFUL's picture

Dear Squire, when engaged in (s)wordplay, care needs be taken to avoid nicking oneself: in this case, I fear the blood you have drawn may indeed be your own!

I am willing to disentangle quite some associations, but this babble seems to be pure propaganda. ("Demand the perfect solution, and if the opponent cannot come up with one, denigrate his opinion as utter invalid.")

While calling terms precise in their description of the phenomena at hand 'babble' is entirely your right, and your own affair, to do so in this case seems to epitomize the very axiom which you seek to employ to rhetorical advantage. Though one might attempt to challenge  the terms used as to their accuracy or useful context, your chosen form of critique instead implies the mind wihich, when confronted by that outside it's conditioned references, seeks to impugn what it cannot grasp. End result, goal in own net syndrome.

That said however, I joyfully accede to to the substance of your charge - pure propaganda - as commonly defined -

1. The systematic propagation of a doctrine or cause or of information reflecting the views and interests of those advocating such a doctrine or cause.

2. Material disseminated by the advocates or opponents of a doctrine or cause

as unlike those who I commented upon, I do not attempt to pass off my positions as impartial, or unreflective of my own self interest!

As to the other part of your estimable effort, I believe that you have both ask and answered your own question....

but of course the players described posture - as all puppets do, in the hands of their puppeteers...that very facet of their character is part of what defines them as renegades from their own root culture - wherein one simplies is who they are, rather than postures an identity...the prevalent cultural norm of the hollow men(womyn)who rule over us now, as satraps of the great talmudic sandrehin.

To your health!


malek's picture

It would help your point to keep it succinct.

All Risk No Reward's picture

>>How many statists ever STARTED a business?? Not a single one.<<

Your paradigm is wrong.

The biggest statists are running the planet as a business.

The multi-national corporations are their main interests.

Government is their handmaiden.

They finance and promote the operatives that will lie to you and then do the bidding of the banksters that promote and finance them.

Debt Money is a Fraud - flow charted out in the PDF below...


Pseudolus's picture

Indeed, the idea that Gov is some enormous Not For Profit is risible

But then, its all part of the "Government is here to help" meme in the great shell game

Of course, the pay as you go system - the one that we end users interact with - is always out of pocket & poorly budgeted - therefore always pan-handling like a NFP (Gov has a big stick in the other hand)

The third estate are simply marks to be taxed "until the pips squeak."

You don't need to do forensics or even see the full set of books to see through the farce of finance (etym. pay ransom, fine, settle a debt)

All Risk No Reward's picture

Even "the books" are fraud.

Research CAFR - consolidated annual financial reports.

States send this to their master - the international banking cartel fronts that isse debt money to states from "thin air."

They don't "print" people - that term is a psy-op to confuse the sheeple. 

They issue debt - and interest is due. 


Meditate on that Veritas.

Clint Richardson has been exposing the CAFR fraud.

A podcast discussing CAFR issues is here

Clint Richardson interview, Pt. 4 – “CAFR – Welcome to the Machine” - #145


Clint's blog is here:


Do a page search for CAFR and you will find many entries.

Your government lies to us all the day long - every one of them that isn't out telling the truth of these frauds is a liar.



Pseudolus's picture

Its CAFR (walter burien) I was hinting at when I said you dont need to do forensics on the books to see it

I'm glad someone caught it - but not surprised it was you



Banksters's picture

Taleb hates bankers.   I hate bankers.   

What's not to like?!

I think I need to buy a gun's picture

i do to by the day because i can't eat without french fries going up by the day and no way to protect myself.......now i'm getting angry

AldoHux_IV's picture

did philosotrader just become a new meme?

AgShaman's picture

If you look in the ice cubes....you can see that woman's face/mouth about to "go down" on some Dude's equipment.

Damn subliminal messaging

JR's picture

Major media this week called “encouraging” the "recovery" signs that are coming from the stock market and a drop in unemployment claims (a total easily explained away by Zero Hedge analysis). Sadly this is what passes for an economic report. Yet, the stock market is not the economy and is less and less so over time.

A lie this big as America's raison d'etre will blow up; central planning by and for the financial elite no longer can maintain it.

The Fed has perpetrated one of the greatest crimes against man in the history of Western civilization. The heist of wealth from the greatest economic and humane miracle the world has ever produced is incalculable…wide, deep and long in duration…and can now be detected in America’s rapid decline.

And, yes, the Fed’s crimes -  enabled by the duplicity of the U.S. Congress and the power-mad sycophants in the nation’s Oval Office - do include the murder of innocents and do include unnecessary, unprovoked and undeclared wars paid for by the inflation tax on American citizens.

In spite of troubling economic conditions two major wars were underway in the Middle East, a thousand U.S. military installations are maintained around the world, and few military expenditures are ever questioned. American labor, small business profits and savings are used to pay for this destruction, killing and infrastructure rebuilding in these foreign lands.

You talk about crime.  This is such a crime you can’t even call it a crime; that would be demeaning to the word crime. The greed by the financial elite for money and power is destroying the very fiber of this nation; the time is near when Americans will have to mount a fierce fight against the financial tyranny of the Fed.

The situation has reached the explosion point.

AllWorkedUp's picture

Well said. Unfortunately I think it's just you and me that are ready to blow. Most everyone else is watching idol or CNBS and the slow speed market meltup. Add to that the Ackman and Icahn drama, the Superbowl and the Housewives of New Jersey and life is perfect for the non-thinking.

 I'm just sitting here boiling and waiting to be recruited, yet nobody cares.

espirit's picture

Maybe, just maybe we extoll the MSM and Krony Kapitalists for their accurate and dependable portrayal of the global economy, employment numbers, manufacturing data, and the wonderful debt incurred by all.

Perhaps we should appear to have tasted the koolade. 

espirit's picture

MDB can be our role model.

Or not.

disabledvet's picture

i agree...not that people don't care but "how do you do anything about it?" we've all been put in a position...and put ourselves in position...to be afraid...to be filled with fear and doubt. this is where the media inserts itself so well...the one way media that is...by "filling that void" not of ignorance but of "being" or "self"...how, "if you just listened to them you'd be a better you." if only...if only. instead of say...DOING SOMETHING of course. i was just having a converstation this evening how about "how come there's not a Mars Rover channel on television?" probably way off base (so to speak) just saying it...but that's something i am interested in...and is in fact interesting. Yet NAY...veerily..."you are to be subjected to shit...AND LOVE IT!" and quite honestly...i HATE it. media exists to DEPRIVE us of what we need...like a McDonalds hamburger..."the idea of wanting more food" but "never actually food itself." awful...and can't believe the Government doesn't shut the whole "Tower of Babble" down.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tower_of_Babel

Socratic Dog's picture

So don't watch fucking television.  Pretty simple answer.  I haven't for about 30 years.

tango's picture

I returned to TV, news, etc after 3 years of staying away.  I discovered that all contact I had was simply affirmation of what I already thought.  There was nothing and no one to contradict anything, to say, "But wait, have you thought of this?"   Now, I have not changed opinions that much but at least I am aware of how others think - or don't think - and that has enabled me to better appreciate my own values and opinions.  

JR's picture

Take heart, my friend.  Many, actually most, of my somnolent acquaintances all of a sudden are awake and are buying guns! Feinstein and Obama’s re-election coupled with his buddy-buddy relationship with the bankers may be the best two things that have ever happened to us! 

Eahudimac's picture

Whoopsie. Double post.

Eahudimac's picture

Feinstein is one fugly bitch. I bet her snatch looks like the thing in the desert with tentacles that jabba the hut tried to through Luke Skywalker into in return of the Jedi.

Eahudimac's picture

I'm with you. Just waiting at this point for the right time to move. Ain't gonna be pretty.

Itch's picture

My only gripe with your comments is when you say the situation has reached explosion point. There is no point in saying this, its hysterical, its boring too, people are bored sick of the pissy knickers routine. If it explodes you’ll know about it, and so will everyone else, there will be no escaping it. Yes, bad things will happen in the future, guaranteed, and things turn for the worse on a dime, there is a single turning point for everything; but are you going to spend your life on your knees, speaking in tongues about armageddon and freaking everyone out with bomb analogies while you wait on it happening? I'll tell you a bigger crisis, you are going to die...are you not going to live now because of it? Could you not find a way of articulating your emotions without telling everyone they are about to explode?

tango's picture

Amen!  The constant cry for explosion, break down, violence and destruction is getting a little old. Lots of solks have read a lot of those end of the world books and think we can shoot our way to a happy ending.  For many it's wish fulfillment; others have huge anger management isssues (the fury of some posters is downright frightening and has to be physically debilitating) but if folks remember we just have this one life and we should live it to the fullest instead of wailing in fear, things would be better.  

JR's picture

You, Itch, say the warnings of an economic explosion are “boring,” and tango says they are “frightening.” I guess when the future comes, each citizen can react as he pleases - some with denial (plenty of those), some with name calling  - but who can argue that the situation is not accelerating toward a climatic event?

The growth of debt slavery is beyond the comprehension of even the men who are creating it. The unemployment and underemployment realities are considerably worse than portrayed by the media. The recovery that’s been coming for a decade is actually a deepening recession. The political control of our nation’s leadership, administration, Congress, courts, regulators, and media are in the hands of tyrants who would make us all slaves.

Deny these facts at your peril but allow truth tellers to call them explosive.

On the political front, America’s latest presidents and congressional representatives and their handlers are killing to be killing, not in defense of the country and her people, but for empire. They assassinate and torture without trial those who would fight back in defense of their homelands and families; they abuse the helpless in betrayal of the valuation of human life. In short, the current foreign policy of the United States of America has a contempt for life.

The veneer of loyalty our current leaders have to America and the American people has peeled off to reveal men without sense of honor or decency.

For those of us who have “breathed the free air of a free country” this is the explosion point. As always, our weaker sisters, should we succeed in taking back America, can again “live free on the strength of better men.”