What Every Student in America Needs To Know About The Federal Reserve

Tyler Durden's picture

Submitted by Charles Hugh-Smith of OfTwoMinds blog,

Frequent contributor Jeff W. recently penned this succinct explanation of the Federal Reserve, and he did so with such clarity that in my view this is the essential primer on the Fed that every high school and college student in America should read. If they study this short essay, they will grasp the essence of the Fed and understand why the financial Status Quo is doomed.


People are confused about the Fed, and I think it would be better if everybody had a clear understanding of what the Federal Reserve is and what it is not.

First of all, the Federal government thinks of the Federal Reserve as a service bureau, whose function it is to print money that the government can spend. As long as the Federal Reserve performs that function--reliably printing, let's say, a trillion or more each year to top off the Federal budget--then Congress will be happy with the Federal Reserve (their rainmaker) and will follow its advice and try to keep it happy.

It should be emphasized here that the whole Keynesian smokescreen and sideshow has very little to do with the reality of the relationship here. The Federal Reserve's job is not just to lend Uncle Sam some money during a recession so as to provide temporary stimulus. The Fed is a milk cow for Uncle Sam. Its job is to give milk all the time.

So to summarize this first point, the Fed is a service bureau for the Federal government whose job it is to provide the government with freshly printed fiat every year. This job has very little to do with the Keynesian prescription of how to deal with a recession.

The Fed is also a service bureau to the big banks that own it. Its job is to give unfair advantage to those banks, either by granting them low-interest loans that can be rolled over into infinity, or by buying their bad debts and disposing of them properly, or by doing any number of other special favors for them that increase their profits and executive bonuses. The Fed is not independent in the sense that it is self-governing. It must provide service to the banks who own it and to the Federal government, which controls its legal environment. Big banks have owned and controlled the Fed since its inception in 1913.

Summary: The Fed is also a service bureau to the big banks. It is not as independent as it proclaims itself to be; it provides services for its owners. Its owners have a profit motive.

The Fed also has its own institutional agenda. It wants to expand and increase its own power. It wants to operate in a safe and predictable environment. It wants to eliminate threats. The Fed advances its own agenda by printing or withholding money. As time goes on, the Fed has asserted more and more control over government. The Federal government is now addicted to freshly printed debt-money. This gives the Fed enormous power over the government.

The big banks who own the Fed also dominate Congress and the Obama administration due to the massive bribes they deliver each year. Thus over time the Federal Reserve has become more and more the master: what it wants it gets, what it doesn't want doesn't happen.

Summary: The Fed is also a selfish, power-seeking institution. It is not an organization of scientists (even though it does employ a small army of Economics Ph.D.'s) whose sole concern is to manage the economy scientifically for the benefit of all.

Some people think the Fed prints money, but when you ask Ben B. about it, he says, "The Fed does not print money. We lend money." Printing money is easy to visualize and understand. Lending money is also easy to understand; it's what banks do. But what the Fed does is somewhat more difficult to understand. To put it into one phrase, "they print debt-money." They print money, but each dollar they print has the chains of debt attached to it. Each dollar they print represents a debt that somebody owes.

A Federal Reserve note is an IOU from the Fed that says "we owe you one dollar." There does exist in the world paper money that is not debt-money, but the Fed does not traffic in that. As the Fed prints more debt-money, they tighten the chains of debt enslaving the government and the people.

A national debt of $1 trillion is manageable. It might be paid off in a few years. But a debt of $17 trillion is permanently enslaving (unless it is defaulted upon). Ben's printing press, then, is also an enslaving press. If Americans were to try to default on $17 trillion of debt, The Powers That Be would unleash their full wrath on the American people.

Summary: Ben B. runs a printing press that is also a debt-enslaving press. We are wrong to focus just on the inflationary effects of his money printing. We should also be alarmed by the enslaving effects.

The Fed has infinite fiat, though they try to disguise that fact. It takes no more effort for them to loan a trillion dollars than a million dollars. They will never run out of zeros in their computer system. The zero keys on their keyboards will always function. No matter how much they can print, they always have available an infinitely greater amount of fiat that they can still print. Printing money requires nearly zero effort and zero cost on their part. They don't get worn out from printing money.

This whole concept of infinite fiat is hard for people to grasp; it is something outside of their experience. People's lifelong experience with money is that it is a limited resource. It is hard to conceive of a group of people who have unlimited, infinite money. Yet the Federal Reserve has just that. The Fed is not like a doctor who prescribes a short-term stimulus for a patient who is feeling run down. The Fed is not like a parent who temporarily puts training wheels on a bike until the kid learns how to ride it. These metaphors make people think that the Fed's fiat printing is temporary and limited. It is not.

Its money printing abilities are permanent and unlimited. The Fed also puts on a show about agonizing over the decision of whether to print money. That make it seem like they are agonizing over whether to pull a sum of carefully saved cash out of their vault. But when they lend to Uncle Sam, they do not pull cash out of a vault that has a finite amount of cash in it. They instead get it from a computer that has the capability of printing unlimited zeros.

Summary: The Fed has infinite fiat. It is not limited by any conceivable shortage, or because of Keynesian stimulus theory, or because the Fed has the role of a doctor, or because the Fed's role is to put training wheels on the economy from time to time, or because it is hard for it to print fiat and there are only so many hours in a day. They have infinite fiat. Their printing is limited only by how much they think they can get away with and their calculations of how they will benefit from it.

So that brings up the final question I shall deal with today. That is, “How does printing money benefit the Fed? Is it better from their point of view to print or not to print?”

The first point in response to this is that they want the government hooked on their printing. They want to be indispensable to the government. A government that balances it budget or reduces the national debt to zero (as the Jackson administration did) is the opposite of what they want.

The Fed's power over government is similar to the power a drug pusher has over a junkie. As long as the junkie is doing what the pusher wants, the supply of drugs is uninterrupted. If the junkie does not pay, the supply is cut off. If the pusher wants to jack up the price at any time, he can do so. If the junkie objects, his supply is cut off. So here we see it is in the Fed's interest usually to maintain the supply, but the supply may also be cut off from time to time in order to ratchet up its power over its victim.

The big banks always benefit from more printing. They profit from it. To the extent that they are cut off from it, they lose money. So from the standpoint of the big banks, the bias is always to print. Note that the Fed can maintain its supply to the banks while cutting off the government. The Fed's owners must always be served; the government is instead to be manipulated, enslaved and controlled under the guise of serving.

Any active defiance of the Fed is a danger signal for investors. The Fed can cut off the government at any time, thus precipitating economic chaos so as to quash rebellion. At present I do not see any serious defiance of the Fed anywhere.

The Fed's main goal is to increase the profits of the big banks. That goal is consistent with increased profits for all firms and prosperity in general, so long as the banks and the elites grab the largest share of the profits.

But that goal is also served in the long run by boom-and-bust cycles that have a ratcheting effect of concentrating wealth in the hands of the wealthy. The clued-in super-wealthy can profit both as bulls and as bears, and can purchase prized assets cheaply at the bottom of the cycle (on easy credit from their friends at the Fed).

It is a Clausewitzian principle that individuals, organizations and nations will expand their power until some superior or equal power effectively opposes them and stops them. Because the Fed's power has no equal, we can expect the Fed's power to continue to increase indefinitely.

At some point, however, history shows that the slaves and victims of oppressors gain strength and confidence when they feel a desperate determination to live.

But that point is still far off. The numbers of the righteous are far exceeded by those who want freshly printed debt-money from Ben Bernanke. Things have not yet reached the desperate, life-threatening stage which is when most revolutions occur.


Thank you, Jeff W. for a clear, concise description of the Fed and its role in the American economy. I would add two clarifications:

1. The U.S. Treasury issues currency (paper money, i.e. Federal Reserve Notes) and sells Treasury bonds to fund Federal deficits, but it does not "print money" in the sense of adding money to the nation's money supply. It borrows money by selling newly issued U.S. Treasury bonds.

2. Technically speaking, the Fed does not give or loan the Federal government money. However, it creates money and pumps it into the economy in a number of ways, enabling large institutions such as banks and insurance companies to buy newly issued Treasury bonds. The Fed also uses its freshly created money to buy Treasury bonds directly. Lastly, the Fed can manipulate the interest rate in a variety of ways, making Treasury bonds attractive to institutional and global buyers.

So even though the Fed doesn't give or loan money directly to the government, it facilitates the sale of Treasury bonds to fund the government in a variety of ways, including direct purchase of government bonds for its own account.

These complexities act as a complexity moat that protects the Fed from inquiry and resistance, as few people understand what the Fed is or what it does.

Correspondent Doug W. recently submitted this excerpt from a letter from Thomas Jefferson to James Madison on the issue of debt as serfdom:

Writing from Paris, in his letter to James Madison dated September 6, 1789, Thomas Jefferson opened with these words:

"The question Whether one generation of men has a right to bind another, seems never to have been started either on this or our side of the water. Yet it is a question of such consequences as not only to merit decision, but place also, among the fundamental principles of every government."


After elaborating on what he thought should be among "the fundamental principles of every government," Jefferson closed with this impassioned request to Madison:


"Turn this subject in your mind, my Dear Sir, and particularly as to the power of contracting debts, and develop it with that perspicuity and cogent logic which is so peculiarly yours. Your station in the councils of our country gives you an opportunity of producing it to public consideration, of forcing it into discussion. At first blush it may be rallied as a theoretical speculation; but examination will prove it to be solid and salutary. It would furnish matter for a fine preamble to our first law for appropriating the public revenue; and it will exclude, at the threshold of our new government the contagious and ruinous errors of this quarter of the globe, which have armed despots with means not sanctioned by nature for binding in chains their fellow-men."

Thank you, Doug, for this reminder that the power to indebt the public is also the power to enslave them. That, fellow citizens, sums up the Federal Reserve and the Savior State it has enabled: debt is serfdom, debt is slavery.


Comment viewing options

Select your preferred way to display the comments and click "Save settings" to activate your changes.
hvl626's picture



This article on the Federal Reserve reiterates a concept of the FR that may not be widely accepted but, without belittling the fine work, perhaps the operation of the Fed should be even more deeply scrutinized.


My background is engineering---an analyist of situations. Many years ago a professor (who had been employed by the FRBNY) teaching a graduate course in Money and Banking revealed the manner in which book-entry money is created to inflate the monetary base. A blog skeptic who asked what harm the Fed has done compelled a further analysis of the professor's revelation. That lengthy mathematical analysis is posted at http://www.scribd.com/doc/48194264/rip-off-by-the-Federal-Reserve-revised . A brief conclusion is posted at http://www.scribd.com/doc/101937790/Federal-Reserve-Heist


The only viable conclusion that can produce inflation and increase the national debt is for the value of Treasury securities auctioned for deficit spending, with the accounting records exclusively handled by the FRBNY, cannot go to the government. The recipient of those funds must therefore be the unidentified owners of the Federal Reserve system or the owners of the Board of Governors. That value is a hidden profit of $4 billion DAILY.


The net profit of the Fed lawfully belongs to the government. Concealment of money that belongs to the government is a crime. The relevant accounts of the FRBNY have never been audited nor are they reported to Congress as required by law.


The theorized use of the embezzled profit of the Fed for the benefit of Wall Street bankers to ravish the world is presented at  http://12160.info/forum/topics/new-world-order-dead-ahead . Continuation of the status quo and allowing Wall Street to plunder society is projected to impoverish the world.


Do you believe the description of Federal Reserve and/or Wall Street action is (A) realistic ? (B) should be exposed ?



Bay of Pigs's picture

End the FED's monopoly, and repeal legal tender laws.

It's really that simple.

auntiesocial's picture

apparently you haven't seen the Zapruder film...

samsara's picture

Let Bill Hicks explain it to him. (Ironic since his name is Bay of Pigs)

Bill Hicks on Presidential Agendas   1:05 minutes


CH1's picture

Best line in the article:

Ben B. runs a printing press that is also a debt-enslaving press.

Herd Redirection Committee's picture

But I thought we abolished slavery?  Am I going to be on the hook to feel white guilt for the modern reincarnation as well?

Ben says the Fed doesn't print, they lend.  Oh really?  So you lend to what, anyone, or only your cronies?  And lending, this involves some sort of charge I imagine?  You know, to distinguish it from giving money away?  Whats that, ZIRP you say?

Handful of Dust's picture

Thnx, Jeff W and co-aurthor. Key sentence:


"The Fed also uses its freshly created money to buy Treasury bonds directly."


Interest on reserves (risk free money for bankers) is also a crucial clincher.

FEDbuster's picture

"When a government is dependent upon bankers for money, they and not the leaders of the government control the situation, since the hand that gives is above the hand that takes... Money has no motherland; financiers are without patriotism and without decency; their sole object is gain."

- Napoleon Bonaparte, 1815

Hype Alert's picture

This should answer all concerns on tapering.

All Risk No Reward's picture

That's the game plan - so it is proceeding pretty well from their point of view.

Pay ettention to this ramification of debt based money that rarely gets discussed, but is CRITICALLY important.

When money is created, a debt is created and the money (FRN or bank credit) is created.

Think in terms of two physical entities to make this simple to imagine - A  Debt Widget and a Money Widget.

Now, the only way to extinguish the Debt Widget is to match it with a Money Widget and POOF - both vaporize.

But, if you don't have access to Money Widgets...  THEN THE DEBT BECOME INEXTINGUISHABLE!


Read that line over and over and over until the tragic absurdity sinks it.

IOW, The Gates Foundation is, in fact, a debt bond slave organization that enslaves a certain segment of society to eternal debt servitude.  No wonder that demon is partnering with the Chinese dictatorship and the NSA to criminally spy on people in defiance to natural law and the Constitution!

“Money is a new form of slavery, and distinguishable from the old simply by the fact that it is impersonal – that there is no human relation between master and slave.”
~Leo Tolstoy, Russian writer.

“It is well enough that people of the nation do not understand our banking and monetary system, for if they did, I believe there would be a revolution before tomorrow morning. The one aim of these financiers is world control by the creation of inextinguishable debt.”
~Henry Ford

"If all the bank loans were paid, no one could have a bank deposit, and there would not be a dollar of coin or currency in circulation. This is a staggering thought. We are completely dependent on the commercial Banks. Someone has to borrow every dollar we have in circulation, cash or credit. If the Banks create ample synthetic money we are prosperous; if not, we starve. We are absolutely without a permanent money system. When one gets a complete grasp of the picture, the tragic absurdity of our hopeless position is almost incredible, but there it is. It is the most important subject intelligent persons can investigate and reflect upon. It is so important that our present civilization may collapse unless it becomes widely understood and the defects remedied very soon."
~ Robert Hemphill, Credit Manager of Federal Reserve Bank, Atlanta, Ga.
Source: In the foreword to a book by Irving Fisher, entitled 100% Money (1935)

The Napoleon quote listed by a previous poster is key, too (do a find for it if you don't know it).  Napoleon was a punk authoritarian piece of trash, but he was an excellent thinker and quite the warrior.  These types are typically pieces of trash, but they aren't stupid.

Napoleon knew WHO he was fighting - and it wasn't the British government or the British people.  It wasn't even the British Army - that is just a tool on the chess board and not the chess master.

Napoleon knew who the Chess Master was - the money power crowd.

Eisenhower called them "the power of money" and said they are "gravely to be regarded."

Listen to the echos through history...  they all echo the same event...  the money power trying to fork everyone else over and enslave them.

"The bank, Mr. Van Buren, is trying to kill me, but I will kill it."
Said to Martin Van Buren (8 July 1832) and quoted in The Autobiography of Martin Van Buren, published in Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1918, vol. II (1920), ed. John Clement Fitzpatrick, ch. XLIII (p. 625)
Referring to the Second Bank of the United States

Power corrupts, and absolute power corrupts absolutely.
Lord Acton

The issue which has swept down the centuries and which will have to be fought sooner or later is the people versus the banks.
Lord Acton

Two Faces of Money PDF

http://thetwofacesofmoney.com/'s Link Page

fourchan's picture

the banks are the franchisees of the fed.


the system as they called it is to enslave a free people and country to debt created out of

thin air and capture all productive assets through boom and but cycles it creates.


some day this system will be called what it is, treason.

All Risk No Reward's picture

For the sake of clarity, the real villains are the people who own and control the mega-bank/Federal Reserve System - and they are all one and the same at the very top.

"For the love of money is a root of all kinds of evil"
I Timothy 6:10

Does this evil want to beg others for this money they love or will the smartest evil seek to control the very difinition and issuance of this money they love?


Manthong's picture

What Every Student in America Needs To Know About The Federal Reserve..

oh..oh.. oh.. let me guess.

You are owned.

iDealMeat's picture

Just cut your fucking consumption in half.  get it??

nmewn's picture

And again, for the umpteenth time, at the basic level that even an Oprah fan can understand. If the Fed (in concert with the federal government) can create "money" at will, why are people taxed at all?

It is about control and the Exclusive Club that you are not in.

walküre's picture

Go even further. Why are we taxed at all and why are we accepting their funny money as payment for our good talents and services? Let 'em eat dirt.

Harlequin001's picture

If you don't understand that one yet then you need to grow up.

All Risk No Reward's picture

Because the government has guns and jail cells, the general population is ignorant, mostly wilfully, so and the banksters finance and promote, through their controlled media outlets, their operatives into political office so they create the laws and use their puppets as proxies to pass said laws.

Pretty simple, eh?

Trampy's picture

"Give me the power to create money and I care not who sits on the throne of England."

Meyer Rothschild, 1851

Harlequin001's picture

If someone can 'give him the power to create money' they can also take it away, which makes this quote bollocks.

spine001's picture

The power to create money is given or taken by the people that believe or stop believing that the money you create is worth anything at all. Like in all relationships of trust, it is hard and slow to earn trust and the USA dollar has gained trust in several hundred years of existence, but also like in all relationships it can take one action, one second to loose all the trust that you gained in years of hard effort.

Well, the USA has reached that point, it is loosing that trust. Thus the SWAP agreements between England and China, between Brazil and China, between Argentina and China, between Brazil and Argentina and so on so forth.

They know it at the FED and they also know that they can not control what is happening for ever if they  keep printing to infinity and  beyond as some here want you to believe they will do. They would if they could, but they can not.

walküre's picture

Dumb. Once they had the power to coin legal tender, they controlled the world. It cannot be taken away unless a military junta takes over and restores control of the money to the people.

dark pools of soros's picture

as long as usury is allowed in the world all the human vices shall be fueled by credit and thus weaken man into lifelong indebtness

Harlequin001's picture

so what would you propose to do about usury then?

Morla's picture

"But I thought we abolished slavery?"

Wait, we still pretend that happened? You know, eventually Asian children are going to learn to read our social studies textbooks and the jig will be up.

rubiconsolutions's picture

Try and explain to the average person that every dollar in existence represents debt and they will look like a deer in headlights. And try and explain to the average person that if we eliminate that (falsely advertised) $17 Trillion "national debt" that they wouldn't have a single dollar in their pocket because all money in this country is debt based and again you get an empty stare. The problem isn't so much the Federal Reserve, it's that Americans don't understand money and currency creation. Mostly because they don't want to know how the hotdog is made. If people took as much time to understand the basis of exchange as they do keeping up with the Kardashian's then they would be far better off.

Kirk2NCC1701's picture

If people knew how hot dogs are made, they'd stop eating hot dogs.

If people knew how money is created, we'd have a revolution (by the morning) - according to Henry Ford.

Do you see either happening, or about to?

old naughty's picture

"Try and explain to the average person...debt...don't understand money and currency...do keeping up with the Kardashian's..."


And there you have it ! Well said rubi.


And why just the Americans? The whole fuc'ing world don't and do...Just ask anyone if they "want to know how the hotdog is made?"


Just yesterday my PhD friend was still saying if you don't play balls with academics you're not in the circle.

Well, do I want to be in the circle? Do you? KARDASHIAN-ed !!!


Que sera sera...

Be well,

Rip van Wrinkle's picture

The problem is the 'average person' doesn't want to know, can't understand and really doesn't give a shit.



pods's picture

I assume that this was in reference to JFK taking back the power and giving it to the people?

He was doing nothing of the sort, and delegated the power he already had to the Sec of the Treasury.  JFK got whacked, but not for anything relating to silver.


Dr. Engali's picture

For some reason people buy into the myth that JFK was taking on the bankers. They seem to forget how a big part of the Kennedy fortune was made.

pods's picture

People need heroes, and if they are heroified posthumously, they can't fuck it up.

When I realized that JFK was NOT taking on the bankers, I think that was when I stopped looking for heroes in real life, and decided to educate as many people as I could.

People do not need a huge explanation as to why the FED is not carrying out their mandate, etc.  

They just need to know that the FED is a marriage between big banking and government, which allows banks to print money and lend it in exchange for easy deficit spending by the government.

The forest, not the trees.


Colonel Jessup's picture

pods - you're not wrong in how the Kennedy's made their fortune, and I will say that I do agree that United States Notes backed by silver were not the main cause for his elimination  - but it was another log on the fire - in addition to his desire to eliminate the military industrial complex that is...or at least control it.

Nobody since has ever tried to issues United States Notes thru the Treasury - all FRNs....

Handful of Dust's picture

Good article. May I recommend anice book for summertime reading a great education:


The Creature from Jekyll Island : A Second Look at the Federal Reserve [Illustrated] [Paperback]


G. Edward Griffin

 From Amazon summary:

"Where does money come from? Where does it go? Who makes it? The money magicians' secrets are unveiled. We get a close look at their mirrors and smoke machines, their pulleys, cogs, and wheels that create the grand illusion called money. A dry and boring subject? Just wait!

You'll be hooked in five minutes. Reads like a detective story - which it really is. But it's all true. This book is about the most blatant scam of all history. It's all here: the cause of wars, boom-bust cycles, inflation, depression, prosperity.

Creature from Jekyll Island is a "must read." "

Rastadamus's picture

Creature from Jekyll Island opened my eyes to the monsters amongst us.

BLOTTO's picture

I cant think of one living, genuine person right now on the controlled MSM anywhere on the planet with 100% certainty that's on the good side for the people of the world....whether it be an entertainer, a politician, or whatever.


Who is our white wizard on the MSM? for real? Where is that pipe smokin Gandalf for fuck sakes?


I think maybe that the white wizard isnt a single individual - but rather its an awakening as a whole by the masses.

But who or what will make that spark...if that is the case

John_Coltrane's picture

Indeed, if you can get your skepitcal friends who don't understand debt backed money, bailouts, and anticompetitive banking cartels, to read just one book this is the one!  It destroyed all my false illusisions and got me to pay a lot of attention to that "man behind the screen".  One of the greatest historical accounts ever written of the money trusts and the wicked web they weave.

pods's picture

Griffin can dissect it better than I ever could:


A snippet:

"What E.O. 11110 did was to modify previous Executive Order 10289, delegating to the Secretary of the Treasury various powers of the President. To these delegated powers, E.O. 11110 added the power to alter the supply of Silver Certificates in circulation. Executive Order 11110, therefore, did not create any new authority for the Treasury to issue notes; it only affected who could give the order, the Secretary or the President."

You proved my point with your statement, as EO 11110 delegated this authority from the president to the Sec Treas.  

If Kennedy wanted to take back power from the bankers, why would he delagate the power he had to do so to his secretary of the treasury (Douglas Dillon), who was from a banking family?  

Makes no sense.


Herd Redirection Committee's picture

I met a younger generation Kennedy a couple years back.  Most messed up person I have ever had the displeasure to meet.  Attention whore, self-absorbed, spoiled, entitled....  I remember when I was told the person "is a Kennedy", as if that would completely change my view, or earn them respect in some way.

Kennedy's were one of the top American crime families of the early 20th century.  Right around 1963 they were surpassed by...  The Bush crime family.

Cathartes Aura's picture

this is what happens when people are told they are special by right of birth, with no other actions needed.

it's a popular myth that is currently being poked with a very sharp stick, the better to deflate their egos. . .

privileges revoked.

Kirk2NCC1701's picture

So, a 'gang' war? One family orders a hit on another - to become the new Don?

Some ppl may want to research or post that old man Kennedy was not let into the elite inner circle of WASPy clubs/circles (where true power resided), because he was (a) Catholic and (b) Irish. This mattered in the 1920s and 30s.

Patriot Eke's picture

The government isn't the gang.  However, it is full of the gang's thugs that are used as enforcers.  Our enemy is a gang that uses governments, economies, religions, and other tools to maintain their power.  The Kennedy's are just chess pieces or as some say "controlled assets."  They are not the players.  That's just my opinion of course, but things are far more complicated than that.

Skateboarder's picture

You can lead a horse to water, but you can't make it drink. You can lead a student to college, and [s]he will take on $20k/yr debt because going to college means you'll get a cush job and be able to party like it's Friday allday errday holler.

Cathartes Aura's picture

the "people need heroes" meme seems to be very active, in proportion to the perceived lack of power in some people's lives. . . maybe it's the comic books at an early age, certainly some type of media that dis-empowers the individual, resulting in a desire to watch others do what they don't believe they can on their own, cheering from the sidelines.

be your own hero, and encourage others to emulate.

viahj's picture

the problem is that heros become martyrs and most Americans are not yet that desperate and hungry.

Kirk2NCC1701's picture

I agree. People are fed this Lone Hero myth from cradle to grave in American culture.