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"Capital" As Seen By An Austrian Economist

Tyler Durden's picture




 

In recent weeks the concept of capital has been thoroughly, and incorrectly, deconstructed by Marxists and Keynesians alike now that, suddenly, the world caught up with what we said would be the crux issue back in 2011: record wealth inequality (who could have possibly foreseen it following $10 trillion in central bank balance sheet expansion in the last decade), and finding "fair" ways of confiscating the wealth of the rich to - at least on paper - help the poor even if in reality all it would do is simply lead to more government theft, embezzling, corruption, and capital misallocation. It is now time to get an Austrian perspective and courtesy of unrepentant "Austrian" Sean Corrigan we just got one.

Warning: not for the faint of run on sentences and subordinate clauses.

From Sean Corrigan of Diapason Commodities Management

One of the most overused and therefore confused terms in political economy is that of ‘capital’. For all the customary richness of the English language, one word here is made to serve for several not entirely consistent purposes at once and it is usually left to the listener, not the speaker, to determine which is under consideration in any given context.

Commonly, 'capital' can be taken to mean an entry in a balance sheet or the sums of money loosely pertaining thereto, entities which can somewhat more precisely be referred to as capital means. The word can, conversely, be used as a synonym for that assemblage of longer lasting, slowly-amortizing means of production – those 'fixed' capital goods - through whose use we greatly extend our feeble human possibilities in the repeated shaping of the (often more ephemeral) things we feel we require and with which a capricious Nature does not effortlessly endow us. Yet again, the term can often refer to that motley  collection of inputs, unfinished, or fully-processed goods variously cluttering up the storerooms of our business or simply awaiting final payment by those to whom we have already delivered them: working capital or, to use an even more venerable phrase, circulating capital is what we have in mind here. No less than John Hicks once referred to these two contrasting views as being those of the 'fundist' and the 'materialist', respectively.

No matter what might pass in everyday parlance, it is crucial to avoid an obsession with capital only as a physically-embodied quantum, much less one imbued with any degree of 'permanence' or - horror of horrors! - of homogeneity. Long ago, the Chicago School – under the aegis of Frank Knight – tried to insist on such a bulk measure and even thereby to imply that societal 'capital' was a self-generating resource, indeed an 'inherently perpetual' one, for whose upkeep nobody in particular need overly trouble themselves. The response from the likes of Hayek and Machlup at the time was uncompromising in its rejection of what the former once referred to as a 'noxious mythology'.

Among the many objections these two and others raised was the decisive one that, to the limited extent it is at all admissible to conflate 'capital' with such tangible means, it should never be overlooked that not only are the vast majority of the goods which comprise it highly functionally specific and therefore not at all versatile in their immediate employment but that even that primary degree of particularity is furthermore contingent upon their compatibility with others means and methods which comprise the overall structure of production.

We Austrians like to make much of the role of a whole complex of complementary flows of goods and services in validating the utility of any other good or constellation of goods. We also tend to talk of 'plan coherence' – of the need for the entrepreneur to map out a pathway through time which will intermesh with those taken by his peers in a manner which will offer him a reasonable prospect of delivering a remunerative product to his future customers. This helps remind us that, yes, the successful entrepreneur will compete vigorously for those customers' dollars – in part by trying to secure first call on some of the same inputs or workers of which others think they, too, could make profitable use in fashioning what may seem to be decidedly non-competitive offerings - but also that co-operation with others' undertakings – however unwitting it may sometimes appear – plays an arguably more important part in the commercial ecosystem.

To see this, just ask who could have hoped to make money launching a social network or offering cloud computing before the advent of cheap, mobile devices and near-universal connectivity? Who would then have been able to launch a high-tech reboot of the Georgian coffee shop as a centre of gossip, a hub of information exchange, and even a locus of the discharge of serious business, before the advent of the Twitters, streaming news feeds, and virtual office systems one can now access there?

All of this should make it plain that 'capital' is inherently dependent upon the context in which one seeks to deploy it and that, far from being permanent, it is in a state of unremitting, Heraclitean flux. Indeed, this condition is likely to hold all the more strongly for the more potent forms of novel capital combinations, since their operation is all the more liable to wreak profound changes in that very tangle of productive streams within which they must themselves work. Not only are such combinations at constant threat of emulation, super-session, or even outright redundancy, as others seek to reap the same rich harvest they promise to deliver, but they may fall victim to their own success in less obvious ways by disrupting the income schedules or, more generally, changing the preference scales  not only of their intended buyers but of their buyers' buyers’ buyers to the nth remove.

Capital is therefore never something which is simply assembled, wound up, and left to run in a corner of the factory, churning out goods and gathering in revenue with no more ado than to see the odd squirt of oil injected into its finely-tuned mechanism. It is altogether a more subjective and conditional construct than that.

But if we draw back from the jaws of Scylla, we must not be caught up instead in the swirl of Charybdis. It is therefore also important not to confound ‘capital’ too intimately with any mere monetary measure, even if we inevitably attempt to compare the values of our respective endowments in terms of the dollars and cents which are so ubiquitous a yardstick in an exchange economy. Again, it is the use to which the money (or the goods it has bought) is put which counts. Money under the mattress, to take the most trivial example, may rightly be counted as part of our wealth, but it is not participating in a transformation of values from one form or a translation of goods from one location to a second state or place where a higher appraisal results and so it hardly qualifies as capital, per se.

Even when we attempt to give monetary expression to that portion of an enterprise over which we have secured some lasting charge (often by persuading others to dig under those very same mattresses we dismissed above) and whether our obligations to them are of long-deferred redemption (debt) or of none at all (equity), before long, such ‘capital’ comes to represent a semi-fictional mish-mash. Here we find nothing less than a fuzzily-estimated, partly-imputed, and often deliberately-obfuscated conflation of the residual worth of a whole miscellany of non-commutative belongings, both tangible and notional (such as
goodwill). And our lack of precision does not end there for the whole will further be subject to even more rule-of-thumb adjustment in the form of the depreciation applied to it.

Patently, none of this can ever be really definitive, no matter how honestly we do our sums. On our books, after all, this gallimaufry may be worth one thing; in the hands of another, something different; and rusting in the scrapyard, something else again. Without such differences, the corporate financier's furrow would be a thin one indeed to plough; there being little scope then for mergers, acquisitions, or buy-outs on the upside and no lower bound in the form of liquidation value on the down.

Going beyond this, we are, of course, all too well accustomed to talking of the ‘capital markets’ when we describe the institutional setting within which we issue, acquire, and transfer the record of our lien over, or our shared ownership in, such purposive legal bodies, with all their associated fixtures, chattels, contracted labourers, ideas, licences, and brand names - and, indeed, no less an eminence than Mises himself declared that the single best marker of a market economy was the existence of a stock exchange. But our very familiarity with this means we are prone to lose sight of some of the fundamentals when we move all the way from counting unique apples and individual oranges to reckoning in uniform dollars and cents. That is a caveat which applies all the more forcefully when we add our shoes and ships and sealing wax to your cabbages and kings, then yours and ours both to those belonging to everyone else, as we tend to do when we talk glibly about the ‘capitalisation’ of the entire market.

Capital, as we have tried to explain, is as much as a matter of function as form and we should therefore like to propose a definition – if still a tentative one – along such functional lines, as follows.

'Capital', we suggest, is best thought of as a negotiable property rights framework within which to exercise entrepreneurial skill in the transformation of energy and matter over time into a succession of more highly-valued, freely-exchangeable forms under conditions of risk and uncertainty.

Here we should also pause to point out that the stated material inputs can be spent simply in sustaining the human actors involved so that, over time, they can produce what may well be completely intangible goods (i.e., services) for offer; that, in this context, the ‘framework’ implies a legally defensible statement of ownership which will vary by time, place, and institution; and that ‘negotiable’ means that the rights themselves may be freely transferred, not just their product. By contrast, we would reserve the term 'capitalisation' for the estimate of the current money price of that capital which we make according to our best guess of the pattern of the revenue stream to which we hope its operation will give rise, that putative stream's quanta being discounted back through time to the present at the prevailing rate of interest.

Since we have introduced it to the discussion, perhaps we should also briefly digress to make it plain that this business of interest is not the reward of giving up some ill-defined quantity called 'liquidity', of an inducement we must be offered if we are not to 'hoard' the money that comes our way rather than putting whatever part of our income we do not immediately intend to consume towards the purchase of some other financial instrument and hence at the temporary disposal of a third party.

Money, under most normal circumstances, is only peripherally to be regarded as a portfolio asset for to do otherwise is to deny due recognition of its principal economic purpose, viz., that of helping us carry out the manifold, mutually beneficial transactions by which we harvest the innumerable riches offered by the division of labour.

Money is not, by and large, to be thought of in terms of a stock to hold but rather as a vital flow via whose medium pulses the infinitely rich traffic of everyday life. It is not after all the blood pooling in the spleen which is critical to an organism's physiology, but the coursing fluid by which is ensured the unceasing circulation of oxygen, nutrients, waste products, hormones, and the watchmen of the immune system to all the body's tissues.

As even Keynes recognised, shortly after he had befuddled the issue in his General Theory, to talk unthinkingly of the 'demand' for money is to beg the question, demand in terms of what? It is in the answer to that deeper question that we find the roots of interest, for the demand with which we are really concerned is the one for money now – predominantly exercised so as to be able to relinquish it again in order to acquire real goods and services in the shortest of short orders – and that demand can only be expressed in terms of a credible promise to deliver a suitable sum of money tomorrow.

Far from being the price of money (as the liquidity preference crowd and the facile opportunity-cost stock advocates mistakenly consider to be the case), interest is therefore the price of time – namely, the time that must elapse between the surrender of a present good and the postponed recompense for that act in the form of a future good, the ratio between the price of the two being what incorporates the interest rate.

That this second sum is a naturally the greater of the two is a fundamental psychological - in many cases an undeniable biological – trait of Acting Man. Call it a consequence of our basic mortality or a symptom of our feckless morbidity, but we all value goods today more highly than goods tomorrow and are thus willing to offer a premium (interest) to have them served up to us early.

So powerful is this urge that people will often submit to truly exorbitant scales of interest in order to satisfy their craving for instant gratification – a proclivity which completely refutes the mainstream's risible angst that any likely, mild pace of generalized price declines will instantly freeze 'consumption' in its tracks as the improvident mass – ordinarily well accustomed to paying double- and even triple-digit rates to sate its appetites – will magically be transmogrified into a  horde of avaricious tightwads, each of its members stubbornly starving themselves to death while the price of bread inches lower by one or two percent a year.

In the context of our treatment of capital, it should be noted that this near axiomatic phenomenon of time preference helps ensure that the producer's goods which pass through the capital framework are acquired by its guiding entrepreneur at a money cost which is less than the sum of his presumed future net receipts. Though the inflationist zealots who populate the op-ed columns of the mainstream media may rage at the idea that people are in anyway entitled to a return on their forbearance, the truth is that the ensuing element of the entrepreneur’s gain – or that of the outsider who helps finance his endeavours - is no more than the price of time, rightly paid for his deferral of the enjoyment of his labours. This is a sacrifice he makes, as part of the routine conduct of his business, in favour of affording other actors in the chain of production (mainly his workers, those of his suppliers, and the workers of their suppliers, etc., etc.) the chance to enjoy their own fruits long ahead of their final ripening.

Seen this way, all monies spent by owner-managers on everything except their own end-consumption is effectively a form of capital outlay, of 'saving'. Since this accounts for between $30-35 trillion dollars annually in the US, versus just under $12 trillion of (imputation-boosted) personal consumption and approaching $6 trillion of total government outlays, we can see that the bulk of economic activity represents this very same act of future-oriented activity. Hardly a sin, you might think, however hard the One Percent of the intelligentsia might try to persuade us ordinary folk to the contrary.

Nor, alas, is it in anyway compulsory. Under the onslaught of that same elite’s invidious and counterproductive urgings, capital withdrawal, liquidation, or consumption is always a possibility, there being nothing automatic about its replenishment, nor any guarantees regarding its continuing increase or improvement. To reiterate, the maintenance of capital is not something which is compatible with a state of complete exhaustive consumption. Once eat your seed-corn, and while you may have a nice warm glow in your belly for that one sweet moment, you will also have ruined your chances of filling it – and filling it many times over, at that - in the course of the following season. Thus we arrive at the presumption that capital is not only first accumulated, but subsequently maintained, by the exercise of some measure of restraint - an act of providential abstinence we tend to refer to as ‘saving’.

Since even the most fervent singers of the Internationale would presumably be happy to accept that the Stakhanovite heroes of the local Soviet - to whom they implicitly and unfavourably compare us soft-fingered, bourgeois rentiers - can hew more coal per shift when not reduced to using their bare hands for the task, they must also concede that human endeavour is usually best augmented with some durable and pre-fabricated implements. They will therefore have to admit that someone had best desist from working the seam for long enough to fashion such tools for the greater glory of the Collective. Given, further, that the chosen tool-maker will both need to keep himself from perishing in the cold, Siberian winter and to heat the furnace in which he will forge the business end of the doughty miners’ pickaxes, NY Times columnists, too, will have to allow that a few choice slabs of carbon must be taken from each sinewy giant - according to the means of his chart-topping haul of coal - and given to our diligent craftsman - according to the needs of his glowing brazier. Thus, the formation of the equipment by which even the Dictatorship of the Proletariat will be more rapidly brought about must involve the tedious business of saving, even if it is a dreadful sin of unexpurgated class consciousness to state this truth so explicitly.

All the complications of the forgoing should alert the reader to the grave dangers of accepting glib academic pronouncements about the aggregate returns achievable by something called ‘Capital’ at face value, however irresistible it may seem to divide a given bucket of earnings by some epistemically doubtful gauge of total capital. He should be even more on his guard when any such attempt is gleefully harnessed to aid an assault on those garnering such returns, by means of the Trojan Horse appeal to ‘social justice’. This, a phrase Hayek which acidly referred to as a ‘semantic fraud’, is little more than a pretext under which our would-be philosopher-kings’ can give vent to their dismay that there can be men better rewarded than they - men who are impudent enough not to pay the pronouncements of these sages the slightest heed, into the bargain.

Contentions over what is to be included in the denominator in this overarching calculation abound (and has indeed already spawned a degree of polemic). But no matter what we chose to put in or leave out, we face the insurmountable stumbling block that capital can only be calculated here in terms of its historic cost. Yet to use this is to fall for the crudest of sunk cost fallacies (or perhaps for the more malign Labour Theory of Value). In truth, what was spent yesterday cannot now be unspent, so capital - like all other goods - must be revalued in both in the present moment and in each of the long succession of such moments to come. This, however, risks bringing us full circle, since the only basis which exists for such a valuation is to estimate the future stream of revenues we deem will accrue to our capital and to discount them back through time (perhaps also allowing for the incorporation of various subjective risk premia in the rate we choose) to the here and now. But if we do this, what does it then mean to talk of an independent reckoning of the return on capital, ‘r’ as the cause célèbre of the left-leaning salons is wont to do?

In light of all this, it is our belief that if we all held to some such expression of capital’s functional essentials as we have outlined above, not only would we be  better guarded against errors of understanding, but those of prescription, too. Certainly, a Rive Gauche Nomenklaturchik such as M. Piketty could not have undeservedly managed to seduce such a mass audience into marvelling at his crude, zerosum, neo-Marxist politics of confiscation if we had. In the first instance, it is largely beyond dispute that it is the condition of the property rights framework which is the prime determinant of both the productivity and the plenitude of capitalistic endeavour - even of the willingness with which it is attempted in the first place. It should be clear from the sorry contemporary example of his own homeland that Piketty’s desired Apparat would corrupt this framework beyond redemption and that it would do so to the detriment of the Many as well as to the frustration of the Few.

Secondly, entrepreneurs must display a rare skill not given to the rest of us ‘routineists’ (to use a trenchant Misesian phrase) – and hence they will fully merit their rewards when they do so. Furthermore, the courage to set one’s possessions at hazard and to expend one’s strength in a test of both (theoretically calculable) Risk and (intractably Rumsfeldian) Uncertainty is also what distinguishes those subjecting themselves to such vicissitudes from us, their prospective happy customers. This again plays a significant part in delivering the unequal – but hardly disproportionate - rewards enjoyed by the successful as opposed to those earned by both their less adventurous and their less competent peers. For all his undoubted human failings, can we really deny that a Bill Gates has merited a good part of his present fortunate estate and that it will serve little purpose for the envious state retroactively to lop the head off such an egregiously over-tall poppy ?

The fundamental truth is that, under the operation of a genuinely free-market capitalism, outsized economic rewards only accrue to those who do manage to add a great deal of value (we here pass swiftly over the parasitic levies exacted through the kind of political machinations of which our esteemed bien pensant  implicitly approves, as we also disregard those only made possible from an exploitation of the many flaws to be found in our inherently faulty monetary-financial architecture).

Under a proper free market capitalism – not the crony-ridden, inflationary Corporativisimo which governs our world thanks in part to the Trahison of such Clercs as our new Wunderkind - such a relatively enlarged recompense can only be enjoyed by those few who affect to offer a multiplicity of their fellow humans a net gain of individual satisfaction. The fact that they do leave us with a surplus of fulfilment after the sacrifice of all the necessary inputs (including that of the goods to which they could otherwise have given rise) is deducted, is justification enough for their elevation above the norm. Do not forget, moreover, that as every new day dawns in the unsentimental milieu of the free market, they must effectively start all over again if they are to sustain, much less increase, their advantage and that the smartest and the best are thus incentivized to keep finding ways to improve the common lot.

Surely, even the most determinedly paternalist utilitarian would find it hard not to support the notion that all is well and good if one man gains one hundred units of reward in return for adding one unit of betterment to the lives of one hundred and one of his fellows? Such are the considerations that utterly vitiate the truncated, ‘Progressive’ calculus that all the ills of the world derive from the dubious empirical contention that some ill-conceived, aggregate statistical artefact ‘r’ seems to be consistently greater than an equally smeared-out and uninformative facsimile of growth, ‘g’.

 

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Thu, 05/08/2014 - 17:05 | 4741139 DoChenRollingBearing
DoChenRollingBearing's picture

I have capital!  And I would be delighted to invest some of it in the America I used to know.

Now my capital is invested mostly in gold, in some real estate and in Peru.

There is no way I would start a business now in the USSA.

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 17:32 | 4741205 Manthong
Manthong's picture

Capital used to mean something like units of account representative of the value of some tangible goods or services.

Now it is just confetti or electrons conjured up by the elite to steal value from the masses.

 

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 21:57 | 4742070 duo
duo's picture

I guess all those abandoned factories in Detroit and Akron weren't built with real capital.  It must have been real capital when those factories were built, but how do we account for "old school capital" bacoming "ghost capital", e.g, plants or equipment that don't depend on FIRE economy?

Fri, 05/09/2014 - 00:17 | 4742378 HardAssets
HardAssets's picture

Real capital is productive assets such as plant & equipment. This country has been so screwed up by the money changers, that most people don't even know that.

Fri, 05/09/2014 - 06:01 | 4742698 Optimusprime
Optimusprime's picture

As both you and Duo above suggest, this refreshingly literate (except for the lazy use of "anyway" for "any way") exercise manages to overlook the political and financial aspects of our situation when they do not jibe with Misesian boilerplate. 

This is the besetting sin of contemporary Austrian economics.  At least Fekete points to the role played the abandonment of Real Bills in the cooking up of the stew we are in.  The Austrians make fine critics, but dubious leaders.

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 17:06 | 4741142 Agent P
Agent P's picture

Whew...that was close...I almost read that.

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 17:08 | 4741153 Joe Davola
Joe Davola's picture

Wall of text crits you for 1e6

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 17:35 | 4741222 Manthong
Manthong's picture

Some pretty good stuff up there but Sean seems to be to text what Phil Spector was to sound.

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 20:46 | 4741835 xtop23
xtop23's picture

Agreed. I actually found some of it quite interesting. 

Fri, 05/09/2014 - 00:32 | 4742401 HardAssets
HardAssets's picture

That reference is as obscure to many ZHers as this one found in the article: 

"But if we draw back from the jaws of Scylla, we must not be caught up instead in the swirl of Charybdis."

He makes some interesting points. I can flip the switch to 'Egghead Mode' as readily as anyone, but not late at night after a long exhausting day. I have less patience for 'academics blather' under such conditions. Learn to communicate in concise and clear language Please !

 

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 17:36 | 4741228 Stoploss
Stoploss's picture

I think i had a brain hemorrhage, im out..

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 17:11 | 4741163 MillionDollarBoner_
MillionDollarBoner_'s picture

What he said...

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 17:13 | 4741167 buzzsaw99
buzzsaw99's picture

stopped reading at "gallimaufry"

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 17:15 | 4741173 MillionDollarBoner_
MillionDollarBoner_'s picture

"gallimaufry" is the Scottish name for a deep fried Snickers bar...

Fri, 05/09/2014 - 03:43 | 4742622 CHX
CHX's picture

confused?

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 17:25 | 4741172 falak pema
falak pema's picture

All Hail the Holy Grail of Capital in the Kingdom of Heaven.

I think I've seen that film and capitalist dogma is no different to any other dogma; its the facts as ENACTED that command theory not the contrary.

So whatever the Austrians may say, the way capitalism has been practiced since 200 years has left an indelible trace of what it factually is by those who upheld its creed.

Rewriting the story to explain what it should be is like rewriting the story of Islam and/or Christianity and saying that "God wills it" or "Jihad" have been deeply misused and misinterpreted. 

Thats all too little, too late. Once the hand has writ it moves on and...

Greed, as Joan Robinson said and Piketty has proven, only led to Oligarchy rule under capitalism and changing Human nature is more difficult than rewriting the script about "true" capitalism; or like redefining true christianity or true Islam. 

We are beyond that now. These economists are just ideologues; period. 

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 17:26 | 4741195 The Abstraction...
The Abstraction of Justice's picture

'Greed, as Joan Robinson said and Piketty has proven, only led to Oligarchy rule under capitalism'

 

Is this the kind of proof to which mathematicians refer, i.e, ones with Godel numbers, or is it the kind you find in a court of law, which is 'enough chaff to befuddle a judge.'

 

Personally I don't need some Marx reincarnate to tell me that the Great Solution is 90% taxes, when those who enforce the taxes are running their affairs off shore. The solution is nationalism, because nationalism is the only thing left worth trying.

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 17:53 | 4741216 falak pema
falak pema's picture

Nationalism is perpetual war; its been tried.

90% taxes is not the solution. But 70% of profits for only the 1% is worse, if it involves as collateral 100% of debt for the 99%.

About Capitalism once regulated by honest elected reps (the key to functional capital/social harmony) :

One thing I would like to point out is the way small business enterprises that are the basis of a free commercial society have regressed since Reaganomics began. The number of small companies has steadily eroded since Bush I days to Obama today. Now that has NOTHING to do with Sauerkraut economics or Vienna schnitzel ! 

http://www.silverdoctors.com/the-economic-recovery-continues-businesses-...

Fri, 05/09/2014 - 02:34 | 4742577 The Abstraction...
The Abstraction of Justice's picture

Come off it, this is the nuclear age. War amongst nuclear powers is over.

Fri, 05/09/2014 - 05:52 | 4742684 falak pema
falak pema's picture

so thats why we are into perpetual asymmetric wars; and need staging posts of non lawful zones, like Libya, Afghanistan, and now Syria/Ukraine to start global/ Regional tugs of war.

The world is now divided into two classes : the neo feudals and the neo serfs; and the world is now being organised, irrespective of OLD NATION STATE BOUNDARIES, to service this new social order; where the material resources of the whole planet have to feed the NWO of Oligarchs; including the reorganisation of the neo-serf classes of third world by the WTO/ outsourcing "labour arbitrage meme".

We are into a global network of Oligarchs who are using financial fascism to organise the world along this new social divide. 

Putin is a throw back to an older type of order--nation state à la de Gaulle-- that according to US globalista and EU neo-surrogate elements is now dead. 

Which way will CHINA/BRICS lean is now the 64 trillion $ question as it determines the 21st century socio-political contours. 

The other conundrum which goes beyond the political considerations of these global artificial games is the peak RM constraint that could bring this whole scheme to implode as the planet regresses due to over consumption and eco-disasters. Man's footprint becomes cancerous like his fiat fabrication machine; whatever the Oligarchs and Shamans may say. 

What Man sows he then reaps. 

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 17:54 | 4741286 novictim
novictim's picture

You would feel much more comfortable if you slept UNDER your bed...with a pump shotgun.  Abstraction, THEY are everywhere I tell you.  THEY are sending government agents into your home at night to poison you and steal loose change from your clothing.  

THEY poison honest capitalists like yourself everysecond of every minute of every day.  Do you have a cabin you could hole up somewhere?  Psst, don't drink the water!  Flouride!

Fri, 05/09/2014 - 05:30 | 4742676 kurt
kurt's picture

That's right! Precious bodily fluid must be preserved. That's why I drink pure grain alcohol and distilled or rain water, but not if they've been chemtrailing because you are drinking bacteria, barium, virus fragments, aluminum, titanium, plastic, gelatinous powder. The worst thing is the radios in the walls. There's radios in the walls. There's radios in the walls. There's radios in the walls.

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 17:47 | 4741266 novictim
novictim's picture

Nicely said, falak.  Pigs before swine, for sure, but I like the analogy.

Fri, 05/09/2014 - 06:10 | 4742711 Optimusprime
Optimusprime's picture

The aspect overlooked includes the dominance of capital over labor--this is the essence of "capitalism", and it is a relation of political dominance rooted in historical developments. 

The Rothschilds actually stole their "seed capital" by fraud--they never paid back the duke's family.  The rest, as they say, is history.  Time preference theory is plausible and intuitively coherent; but there is a lot more to the story.  Behind every great fortune is a crime?  

Certainly behind out present FIRE economy there is crime--and it is ongoing.  And note, I have said nothing about the state taking care of the issue.  The last major state to go beyond mere gestures in this regard was Hitler's Third Reich, and we know how the Anglo/American/Zionist establishment reacted the that...

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 17:21 | 4741179 Schmuck Raker
Schmuck Raker's picture

Corrigan Thesaurus Rex!

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 17:21 | 4741181 McMolotov
McMolotov's picture

I think this guy uses more m-dashes than I do — and I use a lot.

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 17:24 | 4741190 kchrisc
kchrisc's picture

Most know that the banksters' "printing" is really theft. They steal from everyone's cash balances, whether in the wallet or bank, via their counterfeit lucre. However, since capital is really accumulated savings, "printing" is also steals and destoys capital as well.

This can be evidenced by the destruction of capital in the DC US and the blossoming of capital overseas in the past 100 years—the years of the FedRes banksters.

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 20:09 | 4741713 Radical Marijuana
Radical Marijuana's picture

ONLY "Most know that the banksters' "printing" is really theft" THAT EVER THINK ABOUT IT ... The vast majority of people never bother to think about it, and do not want to start thinking about it.

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 17:28 | 4741199 ebworthen
ebworthen's picture

The ultimate form of capital is someone's life and what they do with it.

I see no reason to expend my capital propping up this Ponzi.

p.s. - the spell checker tries to replace "Ponzi" with "Fonzie".

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 18:05 | 4741309 kchrisc
kchrisc's picture

"Fonzie scam": Where one's coolness to first beholders is paid from the newest beholders.

Fri, 05/09/2014 - 06:11 | 4742713 Optimusprime
Optimusprime's picture

The soul of wit!

 

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 18:59 | 4741520 mikeadamson
mikeadamson's picture

ehhhhhhh

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 20:44 | 4741819 Poor Grogman
Poor Grogman's picture

A couple of minutes of your time spent typing that comment, or teaching someone else is capital well spent.

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 17:42 | 4741238 novictim
novictim's picture

Long winded bullshit by some clown who has no clue and no audience.  

Typical Zero Hedge.  

Thomas Piketty has nailed the key issues of the day to the doors of the worlds financial centers, has done so in a way that EVERY economist can respect and admire (talk about dilligent data collection!) and yet we keep getting yesterdays has-been arguments and ideology driven crap like we see here.

Tyler, update your material buddy.  If you don't address the challenges and thesis that we confront TODAY, then you will continue to be IRRELEVANT.  

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 17:43 | 4741251 Der Wille Zur Macht
Der Wille Zur Macht's picture

No

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 17:41 | 4741242 kchrisc
kchrisc's picture

Anyone so inclined should also investigate the "pool of real funding" (the subsistence fund).

 

http://mises.org/daily/1596

http://aaseconomics.com/economic-insights/economic-growth-and-the-pool-o...

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 17:43 | 4741250 no more banksters
no more banksters's picture

"All these theories enhanced the beliefs of some economists like F. A. Hayek, whose economic models were totally excluding altruism and were totally dependent on personal interest."

http://failedevolution.blogspot.gr/2014/01/how-western-societies-lost-th...

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 18:03 | 4741303 CunnyFunt
CunnyFunt's picture

Hayek offered some brilliant critiques of socialism,  but it was Mises who demonstrated the irrefutable idea that economic calculation is impossible in a socialist commonwealth. For nearly a century,  socialists have avoided, ignored and even sabotaged Mises works.

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 18:35 | 4741426 Carl Popper
Carl Popper's picture

John Adams noted that facts are stubborn things.   Ignoring them does not make them go away.

Fri, 05/09/2014 - 14:51 | 4744349 kchrisc
kchrisc's picture

But the government correlation: "The more guns you have, the longer you can avoid the truth."

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 18:10 | 4741327 realWhiteNight123129
realWhiteNight123129's picture

A bit of verbose. Also a confusion between currency and money. Money is a token not redeemable in something else (gold coin in teh past, Federal Reserve physical notes today). Currency can be created by the bank when you deposit money (a pile of 100 USD bills), currency can also be created when a merchant has a receivable and the bank gives a currency amount against the credit instrument (good bills). Monied capital (Fullarton definition) is basically mostly currency deposits and sometimes money. Money does pre-exist before credit formation but creidt formation and currency depsoit formation happen at the same time. In a redeemable system there is effectively a supply of money which varies according to market mechanism through the melting of bulllion into coin and M0. In Fiat there is no market mechanism for the supply of money.... So talking about supply and demand of money in fiat system is a pie in the sky.

 

The only place where you effectivelt have a supply of money guiding interest rates is Hong-Kong, since Hong-Kong dollars M0 are backed by a pool of something (USD dolalr today, but sterling before and silver before 1930s). So there you can still talk about supply variation of money. 

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 18:12 | 4741338 A Lunatic
A Lunatic's picture

All of your capital are belong to us.......

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 18:29 | 4741400 CunnyFunt
CunnyFunt's picture

+1. Ain't that the truth?

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 18:15 | 4741348 realWhiteNight123129
realWhiteNight123129's picture

He makes a good point on time and interest. Duration extension are contraction (panic) are what drive financial assets. Commodities are driven by supply and demand except the storable commodities like Gold which is the commodity to buy the other commodities. When time horizon contracts (panic) Gold goes up, stock multiples crumble and same for debt. 

 

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 18:19 | 4741361 I Write Code
I Write Code's picture

TLDR

But I'll comment anyway.

He's mostly right, if extremely long-winded.

Let me simplify.

Take a dollar bill and place it on the table.  This is your capital.

Now, watch it increase faster than the economy.

No?

Then Piketty is wrong.

Have a nice day.

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 18:27 | 4741395 Carl Popper
Carl Popper's picture

I can convert labor into capital by building a machine, clearing the land and planting apple seeds I find from apples on granny's tree.  I can build more machines and turn it into cider.    I can have a nice flow of goods and services come my way in exchange for the products of my capital and labor.

 

After a generation my neighbors see a nice bit of capital owned by my descendants.   They claim my descendants are undeserving of it.    After all my descendants have capital but my neighbors do not.  They vote to take the capital away from my descendants and share it among themselves as a form of social justice.

 

However my neighbors do not know how to take care of the trees añd the machines.   They make horrible cider and eventually the trees die and the machines fall into disrepair.

 

Now my neighbors not only have lost the capital they acquired for themselves out of a sense of social justice, they no longer have any good cider to drink.   They are worse off than before.  At least initially they had good cider at a fair price, even if they did bemoan the injustice of socio economic inequality

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 20:07 | 4741706 BoingBoing
BoingBoing's picture

So tell me what amazing benefits the wizards of Wall Street and the Square Mile have brought to our societies that they should enjoy lives without taxation and redistribution of their wealth?

Fri, 05/09/2014 - 06:14 | 4742716 Optimusprime
Optimusprime's picture

Sounds like what happened to the Armenians after their geoncide and replacement by Turks and Kurds.

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 18:29 | 4741406 realWhiteNight123129
realWhiteNight123129's picture

Capital should be counted on a net basis, as THornton defined it, the commercial capital of a country should be netted debts. When Companies borrow to pay special dividend, they increase their liabilities whitout increase the capital. When a country has more and more external debt growing faster than the internal net commercial capital, there is no more commercial capital to show for.

 

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 18:40 | 4741457 realWhiteNight123129
realWhiteNight123129's picture

Every capitalist craves for one and one thing only: Market failure, that is creating a monopolistic entity. Thank god most fail. But the reward is not in delivering a superior product it is in controlling a entity which behaves in non-market conditions (monopoly).

 

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 18:48 | 4741484 Meatier Shower
Meatier Shower's picture

I think reading only the bold sections was sufficient.

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 19:04 | 4741531 starman
starman's picture

so what its said? will someone tell me?

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 19:19 | 4741570 Pareto
Pareto's picture

Fuck good question!  You need bread crumbs to find your way back!  Hayek's greatest contribution, in my opinion, to this issue here is his reference to the Cantillon Effect, or, what I like to call, "he who spends it first, spends it best".  Based on Richard Cantillon's work that among a shitload of other things, points out that when central banks inject liquidity, there is a price effect - a debasement - which doesnt actually occur until later, when the little people finally get a piece of the action.

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 20:08 | 4741710 I Write Code
I Write Code's picture

He said capital is what you do with it, and depends on the situation.

What that implies is that it's not the kind of thing you can even begin to build a class warfare on so both Piketty and Marx were just wrong or just babbling.

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 20:46 | 4741665 Radical Marijuana
Radical Marijuana's picture

"Warning: I LOVE "run on sentences and subordinate clauses."

Regarding the crucial defining sentence in that article:

"'Capital', we suggest, is best thought of as a negotiable property rights framework ..."

which depended upon the previously existing natural "capital" of natural resources, that had claims staked upon them by people, who were able to back those claims up with coercion. The "property rights" were the ability of some people to assert their claims, based upon backing those claims up with coercion, against all other people, past, present, and future.

"... within which to exercise entrepreneurial skill in the transformation of energy and matter over time into a succession of more highly-valued, freely-exchangeable forms under conditions of risk and uncertainty."

Individuals were born into the flow of historical events, whereby the previous systems of claims backed by coercions were surrounding them, into which systems they could insert themselves to in order to function. The basic realities were the history of civilizations being enforced frauds, where the production of destruction controlled production. Those who were best able to adapt to that social system surrounding them could make it work to their advantage, while those less able to do so would have those systems work to their disadvantage.

"Capitalism" DOES operate as an entropic pump through general energy systems. However, the "free market" of "capitalism" includes the "free market" in fraud and murder. Indeed, the reality of capitalism operates through the development of systems of organized lies, operating robberies, in which the most important form of robbery is murder. Therefore, the best organized gangs of murderers end up backing up the private property claims with their coercions. As the trend for power to become information develops, along with progress in science and technology, the symbolic forms of robbery through frauds become predominant, although those are still backed up by the general background threats of force. In that context, "Austrian economics" continues to be reactionary, and only slightly better than the even worse fraudulences of systems which more wholeheartedly embrace the notions that creating "capital" out of nothing as debts is a good idea.

Capitalism should be understood as entropic pumping within general energy systems, which continues to make thorough abstract sense, and is consistent with how other evolutionary ecologies developed. However, the mainstream bullshit "capitalism" deliberately disregards, diminishes, and discounts that capitalism necessarily includes fraud and murder. After adding frauds and murders to "free market capitalism," one gets the real systems that currently exist, which are runaway fascicst plutocracies, building fascist police states to defend and advance themselves, because their trajectory is towards privatizing the whole planet, as much as possible, despite that that is killing off the life of that planet as a whole. The greatest source of "wealth" of the plutocrats is the ability to make the public "money" supply out of nothing as debts, which system governments force everyone else to accept. That legalized fraud is legalized symbolic robbery, which is the FOÙNDATION of the dominant political economy.

The only things that exist are different systems of organized lies, operating robberies, which operate in dynamic equilibria with each other, that take energy and matter from their environment, to process those, and dump them back out into their environment. Basically sensible economic capitalism is the same as that found in all life forms, that take energy and matter from their environment, endeavouring to transform those in ways which will then enable them to continue to take more energy and matter from their environment, in ways which are "profitable" in the sense of enabling their entropic pumping functions to continue.

IF economics was understood in that straightforward way, then it would be able to be integrated better into the understanding of natural capital in general, and the ways that all other general energy systems operate. However, the history of human civilization was primarily about the biggest bullies' being able to make and maintain bullshit social stories about what they were doing, that the majority of people were beaten into submission to agree with. Therefore, basic economics included robbery, backed by murder as the the most extreme form of that robbery. That was the basis of the War Kings, that created the sovereign states, whose powers were covertly captured by the Fraud Kings, the private banks. Thereby, the economy controlled by robbery became the economy controlled by fraud. "Free market capitalism" still continued, but could only be sufficiently understood after one includes that the "free markets" in fraud and murder were the main controlling systems of the rest of the other levels of apparent "free market capitalism."

The most financially successful "entrepreneurs" were the ones that pioneered new ways to engage in frauds, within which the established systems they could continue to count on being enforced, by the previously established systems. Of course, along the way, the same basic pattern of the biggest bullies promoting the dominate bullshit was the way that "economics" was explained, while deliberately ignoring how the creation of "money" out of nothing as debts was destroying "free market capitalism" for those who continued to operate inside of the illusions that there was a "rule of law" that did not allow that, when actually the "rule of law" was the supreme manifestation of that operating on the highest levels.

Overall, human beings operate as robbers in their environment, to the degree that we perceive them as separate from their environment. That is, human beings individually, and collectively in civilization groups, operate as entropic pumps, which take energy and matter from their environment, in order to transform that into garbage and pollution, in ways which will possibly enable them to continue to take more energy and matter from their environment, to transform into more garbage and pollution. Neolithic styles of civilization were all about doing that through social pyramid systems, of organized lies, operating robberies, in conflict with other similar systems surrounding themselves.

The history of warfare selected for social systems that were the best organized lies, operating robberies, to prevail, which included developing the best organized lies about themselves, regarding what they were actually doing. Western civilization was merely more and more of that process, able to spread out, so that Neolithic styles of civilization we able to conquer the whole world, and force the entire planet into the overall systems of lies backed by violence, strip-mining the planet to hell.

Theoretically, "capitalism" should go through a better evolution of ecologies, which would repeat the ways that natural ecologies were able to develop in the past, except this time embracing human ecologies which were amplified on top of industrial ecologies. However, the degree to which the current FAKE "capitalism" is able to get away with ridiculous bullshit about NOT being based on murder and fraud, that makes integration of the human and industrial activities within the natural world, and it natural capital, practically impossible to engage in any thoroughly rational ways, since the most "successful" systems are based on operating the debt controls, backed by the death controls, which were enabled to function on the basis of the maximum possible frauds and deceits about themselves, as the ruling classes who most benefited from being able to do that were able to force all the lower classes to go along to get along within those establish systems that dominated their lives.

Austrian economics, as contrasted to Keynesian economics, is reactionary revolution, against the established systems, while BOTH stay within the same basic bullshit, based on deliberately ignoring the greater ecological and environmental realities, within which human beings always operated as entropic pumps, within the assembled general energy systems. In general, all established schools of economics are based on deliberately ignoring the surrounding environmental realities, because NOT doing that demands facing the ways that enforced frauds are fundamental to controlling those systems.

Successful people are successful within the dominate organized systems of enforced frauds, which they are able to rationalize and justify, and/or deliberately ignore. The vast majority of people have been conditioned to not understand that, because they feel like they do not want to understand that. They like to indulge in fantasy cultures, whereby they are not aware of, or not responsible for, the murders that back up the measurements made by money. They want to regard their private property as being positive, rather than as being inherently negative. Therefore, they are adamant idiots, who do not want to understand how the real systems could develop better integrations, into improved ecologies, which could enable the human and industrial ecologies to operate like many different natural ecologies were, for prolonged periods of time.

All over the world, within the limits of previous levels of technology, different groups of people developed cultures which enabled them to live sustainably, for thousands of years. However, Neolithic Civilization developed technologies which allowed its methods of organized lies, operating robberies, to conquer all of those previous social systems, and force them to become integrated into the financial frauds operated by the triumphant Neolithic Civilizations.

In theory, that globalized triumphant Neolithic style of civilization will be forced to adapt to new sets of planetary limits, for its overall technologies. However, at present, it decisively rejects doing that. Meanwhile, the debates between current established schools of economics continue to mostly be debates within the same frame of reference, of the biggest bullies bullshit social stories, which get away with deliberately disregarding the ways that they are fundamentally based on enforced frauds. Those enforced frauds are consistent with how general energy systems actually operate, but those realities were deliberately ignored, in order to enable them to, so far, function better for those people operating those systems.

At the present time, ALL established schools of economics, that I am aware of, maintain attitudes of evil deliberate ignorance towards realistic evolutionary ecology. Just how much longer that kind of social insanity can continue is the question of our times, as the exponential growth of the Neolithic, social pyramid style of civilization rapidly approaches the limits of planet Earth to be able to sustain that. The economic system that enabled the strip-mining of planet Earth apparently has its days numbered, but those doing that have developed special mental blinders which enable them to continue, so far, to deliberately ignore that. There are no established schools of economics that I am aware of that reconciles "capital" with general energy systems concepts, because that can not be done unless one faces the fact that money is measurement backed by murder.

Fri, 05/09/2014 - 06:17 | 4742719 Optimusprime
Optimusprime's picture

However, the "free market" of "capitalism" includes the "free market" in fraud and murder.

 

Beautifully succinct.  Another gem from RM.

Fri, 05/09/2014 - 14:59 | 4744385 Radical Marijuana
Radical Marijuana's picture

Thanks, Optimusprime!

I WISH that I had something better to conclude with, other than to repeat my basic analysis that, since social "success" depends upon taking for granted the fundamental enforced frauds, hence, the growing paradox that "success" within those political economy systems is based on deliberately ignoring the actual realities of those systems. Social successes are based on being professional liars and immaculate hypocrites, that are able to talk about "economics" in ways which deliberately ignore their environmental realities. The radical truths about economics, inside the actual natural environment, are that those organized systems of lies, operating robberies, are more socially successful by being more dishonest about themselves.

In my own little life, I just received another confirmation of that, in the form of another USELESS LETTER from the Canadian Revenue Agency (the Canadian equivalent of the American IRS), that was classic bureaucratic run-around regarding my work on the Canadian Political Contribution Tax Credits through Electoral District Associations.

Elections Canada told me to ask the Canadian Revenue Agency, and the Canadian Revenue Agency told me to ask Elections Canada. Of course, they both know about that situation, and discussed this with each other, but nevertheless have continued to use that classic bureaucratic run-around technique to be able to NOT respond. They tacitly admit what I am actually doing is legal, but will not state that in any useful way.

The bigger picture regarding my work regarding the legal truth about political contributions has been about the government officers promoting the view that political contributions are the legally the same as charitable contributions, although they know that is not true. The results continue to be that 99.7% of the potential of the Canadian political contribution tax credit never gets used, because 99% of Canadian taxpayers do NOT participate in funding the political processes. Less than 1% of Canadians are paying for the politics we get, while 99% pay for nothing, because they do not want to participate. After I have spent a few decades on that problem, I have only proven the nature of that problem, without being able to do anything practical to significantly change it!

Of course, the funding of politics in the USA is thousands of times worse than in Canada, as is now becoming obvious to anyone who bothers to LOOK:

http://youtu.be/zYIEd3dYtcc

Fed Chair Janet Yellen Admits America Is an Oligarchy

HOWEVER, THE OVERWHELMING MAJORITY OF PEOPLE DELIBERATELY DO NOT LOOK, BECAUSE THEY DO NOT WANT TO LOOK AT THE BASIC FACTS ... WHICH ENABLES THE ESTABLISHED SYSTEMS OF ENFORCED FRAUDS TO AUTOMATICALLY GET WORSE, FASTER ... WHILE NOTHING I HAVE DONE HAS ACCOMPLISHED ANYTHING, EXCEPT TO PROVE THAT THOSE ARE THE FACTS.

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 20:15 | 4741732 Lead Balloon
Lead Balloon's picture

I read this sort of like I read Shakespeare, I get the gist, but some of the jokes fly right over my head.  (There WERE jokes in ths, weren't there?)  Anyway, from my reading, he seems to be saying that capital is much more easily consumed than preserved and replicated in a sustained system.  The powers that be seem to be more motivated to facilitate consumption of said capital than expansion of it.  In the long run, that does not bode will for future prosperity.

 

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 20:18 | 4741733 Spungo
Spungo's picture

Guy who wrote that is definitely high on Adderall.

My understanding is that capital just means resources. It's money, equipment, people, skills, software, etc. The dictionary says capital is money and other assets contributed to a particular purpose. It's generally used to describe resources put to productive use. Capital destruction would be resources that are consumed without producing anything.

Fri, 05/09/2014 - 03:49 | 4742625 CHX
CHX's picture

like increasing the money supply (to pretend there is a positive GDP) when the real economy is contracting ?

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 20:27 | 4741765 DerdyBulls
DerdyBulls's picture

Can ambiguity be capital?

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 20:28 | 4741766 DerdyBulls
DerdyBulls's picture

Gosh. This strained the capital between my ears. Sheesh.

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 21:05 | 4741916 flyingcaveman
flyingcaveman's picture

Used so many words that they became worthless as treasure bills.

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 22:47 | 4742185 blindman
blindman's picture

speaking of capital.
.
While abstract thought seeks to understand the concrete abstractly, the subjective thinker seeks to understand the abstract concretely. - Soren Kierkegaard
.
http://lifesprivatebook.blogspot.com/2012/05/most-important-dialog-in-go...
.
" MICHAEL
Tell me something, Ma. What did Papa think -- deep in his heart? He was being strong -- strong for his family. But by being strong for his family -- could he -- lose it?

MAMA
You're thinking about your wife -- about the baby you lost. But you and your wife can always have another baby.

MICHAEL
No, I meant -- lose his family.

MAMA
but you can never lose your family.

MICHAEL
Times are changing. "
...Important Dialog in "the Godfather".
.
Arthur Alexander Everyday I Have To Cry Some
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0GSj-TTQvY4

Fri, 05/09/2014 - 06:20 | 4742724 Optimusprime
Optimusprime's picture

+1000 for a post which manages to use both Kierkegaard and Puzo appositely in the same short post.  Congratulations, sir!

Sat, 05/10/2014 - 00:33 | 4742814 blindman
blindman's picture

thank you, i was trying to condense the very
dense and broad subject of "capital" in its
least material yet most essential aspect;
capital is relationship.

Thu, 05/08/2014 - 23:10 | 4742245 blindman
blindman's picture

"Capital" As Seen By An Artist Economist
.
O Superman - Laurie Anderson - as displayed in the MOMA, New York
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-VIqA3i2zQw

Fri, 05/09/2014 - 00:45 | 4742428 trader1
Fri, 05/09/2014 - 05:32 | 4742677 kurt
kurt's picture

I don't know what kind of witchcraft this is but it surely is. I don't read so I'm safe. Jimcrackery to be sure. I don't give one fiddle-e-dee. Why I'm as free as a lark!

Sat, 05/10/2014 - 16:43 | 4746732 Fishhawk
Fishhawk's picture

The natural world favors the strong, at the expense of the weak.  So a society becomes a mob of the weak, seeking to subdue or limit the strongest in their midst through the group's combined strength.  Capitalism, based on private property rights, is the only system that aligns incentives with advancement of the overall welfare of the group.  The true capitalist combines resources, labor, and vision to create new value.  This value consumes resources, such that they cannot be easily used to create other new value, but this is unavoidable, as all new inventions build upon prior learning.  Does this plunder the earth?  yes, but presumably for some greater good, the value of which will always be subject to argument.  

So where did it go wrong?  The mob, once formed, is easily taken over by the strong, and turned into a tool to wield power.  Quickly the laziest and wickedest of the strong realize that this power is actually better than having to apply labor and vision to improve one's lot; just have the 'state' steal it for you.  Now the problem becomes one of the individual honest man not being willing to die to oppose the fraud and theft which has been institutionalized by the mob.  It is easy to understand why individuals would rather not contemplate the conflict which would arise if they tried to oppose the mob; there is that nagging first biological imperative, to survive...

So, RM, how do you propose that this situation can be improved, recognizing that some fraction of the population will always be willing to steal, and will use the social institutions that they find in place to accomplish this theft on a larger, and thus more efficient scale?  

Fishhawk

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