"One Belt, One Road" May Be China's 'One Chance' To Save Collapsing Economy

Tyler Durden's picture

In April, Chinese President Xi Jinping marked a historic visit to neighboring Pakistan. China, via Beijing’s “One Belt, One Road” initiative, will invest some $50 billion in Pakistani infrastructure, including power plants, roads, railways, and, perhaps most importantly, the Iran-Pakistan natural gas pipeline. The vast sum represents 53% more than the US has given Islamabad over the past 13 years combined. China is also set to invest an equally large sum in Brazil and is even considering the construction a railroad over the Andes, which would connect Brazil to China via the Pacific and ports in Peru. 

On Sunday, Hungary became the first European country to sign a Silk Road MOU. Reuters has more:

Hungary has become the first European country to sign a cooperation agreement for China's new "Silk Road" initiative to develop trade and transport infrastructure across Asia and beyond, China's foreign ministry said late on Saturday.


China welcomes more European countries to look East, and strengthen cooperation with China and other Asian countries, and participate in the "One Belt, One Road" in various ways, said Wang Yi, China's foreign minister, according to a separate statement on the website.


Hungary hopes to closely cooperate with China and push on with the Hungarian-Serbia railway and other major construction projects, Hungary's President Janos Ader was quoted as saying by the Chinese foreign ministry.


China is helping fund and build a railway connecting Hungary and Serbia.


Projects under the plan include a network of railways, highways, oil and gas pipelines, power grids, Internet networks, maritime and other infrastructure links across Central, West and South Asia to as far as Greece, Russia and Oman, increasing China's connections to Europe and Africa.

Although highly publicized, “One Belt, One Road” isn’t well understood (which partly reflects the sheer size and scope of the initiative). The program has been cast, by some, as a Chinese Marshall Plan, an interesting characterization, given that we’ve cast the AIIB as an implicit attempt by Beijing to institute a kind of Sino-Monroe Doctrine.As an aside, this also demonstrates an overwhelming tendency (and we may be guilty here as well), to view the world through glasses tinted by the unipolarity that has dominated global politics for more than six decades. Or perhaps it’s a reflection of the fact that China is indeed a rising hegemon, and as such its policies and programs resemble those of the US at critical historical moments when Washington seized opportunities to expand American influence. 

Here, to cast some light on "The Yi Dai Yi Lu", is Barclays:

*  *  *

Not just a Marshall Plan – bigger, more comprehensive and more inclusive

The Yi Dai Yi Lu (YDYL) initiative has been labelled a “Chinese Marshall plan” in some global commentary. There are some similarities between China’s new initiative and the post World War II US-driven European Recovery Program (popularly known as the Marshall Plan after US Secretary of State George Marshall).

  • The emphasis on infrastructure and heavy industry as a mode to kick-start growth or recovery.
  • The Marshall Plan amount of US$13bn (c.US$120bn in current dollar value) is in the same order of magnitude as the initial US$40bn envisaged for the New Silk Road Fund.
  • The establishment of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) could be perceived to be analogous to the formation of the IMF and the World Bank to aid the structural transformation of economies.
  • The perception (in some quarters) of potential for Chinese hegemony in the YDYL countries.

However, there are some obvious differences as well.

  • The world is not recovering from the aftermath of a world war. In fact, most of the countries that are potential YDYL project recipients could do just fine without the project impetus (though growth rates arguably would be lower).
  • The YDYL initiative is open to all countries, regardless of their political or economic regime.

We note that the Chinese government has expressed its displeasure at the Marshall Plan moniker. A government spokesman said in early March 2015 “It is inappropriate to simply describe the Belt and Road initiatives as another Marshall Plan. These initiatives seek common development of countries with different ethnicities, religions and cultures, focusing on wide consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits.”

More than just a political slogan – this concept has potential, in our view

We expect companies in China from SOEs to private enterprises to embrace the YDYL initiative, indentifying the value it could bring to their businesses, rather than simply paying lip service to the leadership’s latest pronouncements. We believe YDYL has captured the imagination of the market. During the FY14 results season, around 70% of the companies in our Chinese metals & mining coverage universe – including both SOEs (eg, Shenhua, Chalco, Jiangxi Copper) and private companies (eg, Hongqiao) – had YDYL formulated in their strategy and plans in some form or other.
Not just about big projects – infrastructure building is just the start

We believe it would not be overstating the case to say that China’s economic power to date has not been reflected in its influence on the world. China’s economic power has not translated into “soft power” being projected into the outside world.
We see three phases of the YDYL initiative beginning to mould China’s influence overseas over the course of a few decades:
  • (Predominantly) China-funded infrastructure using plenty of Chinese-made materials and machinery, ‘adopted’ technology and Chinese construction companies (with a high contribution of Chinese workforce as well – at least in the initial stages).
  • Increasing awareness and demand for Chinese brands, consumer products and cultural products as a result of increased interaction between the countries that receive YDYL investment increases and China (in short, China becoming “cool”). Chinese consumer goods companies could capitalize on the international growth phase – very similar to Coca Cola and Disney as they became US exports in prior decades.
  • Full integration of China with the global economy as global influences (not just from the economically successful countries) seep back into China. Creation of international companies out of China that are truly transnational in character (eg, the likes of Unilever), rather than those that are just “China-plus”.

Our China Economist, Jian Chang, also believes that development along the New Silk Road could contribute to sustainability of China’s growth at 5-7% in the coming years and have a positive impact on China’s industrial upgrading and economic transformation.

*  *  *

As you can see, One Belt, One Road has far-reaching implications for China. For Chinese state-owned companies, return on investment is falling (diminishing returns in the face of overcapacity) and now sits just above 4%. Investments in US Treasurys yield even less.


On the other hand, Barclays estimates ROIC on YDYL projects to be between 10-15%, an obvious improvement over both domestic investment and money parked in US safe haven assets.


Meanwhile, embarking on large infrastructure projects with YDYL recipients can also help alleviate one of China's pressing problems. The transition away from investment-led growth to a consumer-driven economy and a dearth of global demand have combined to leave China's industrial sector in a state of perpetual overcapacity.


YDYL countries offer a potential outlet (a pressure valve, if you will) as there is a pressing need for FAI in the form of roads, railways, and power generation. While infrastructure development in these countries has the potential to provide a short-term economic boost for China, an expanded Chinese presence could also yield medium- and long-term benefits. Here's how Barclays sums things up:

China could benefit in the short, medium and long term from achieving various levels of the targets outlined in YDYL. Many sectors could benefit from increased revenue, while non- monetary benefits such as goodwill and political clout could arise if China successfully helps developing countries improve their economies.
  • Short term: Ease industrial overcapacity, create demand for Chinese capital and consumer goods. Help reduce the economic disparity between inland and coastal China as YDYL land-based projects are focused on central and western China.
  • In the medium term: Raise demand for Chinese capital goods and Chinese products in general, effectively helping China transition to a consumption-driven economy. Maintain export growth.
  • Medium to long term: Internationalization of China’s currency as some loans to YDYL countries will include RMB in the basket of currencies used to denominate and settle loans, versus using US dollars.
  • Long term: Promote travel, cultural exchange and long-term cooperation in geopolitical, military and trade areas. Improve general image of China on the world stage. Increase returns for the portion of China’s reserves contributed to the development funds and diversify risks. Potentially ease tension between countries over territorial disputes.

In sum, China benefits economically from YDYL in three important ways. First, investing in countries where FAI is needed to improve infrastructure not only helps China's SOE's achieve a higher ROIC than they could get domestically, but also helps to alleviate China's industrial overcapacity. Second, establishing a Chinese presence in emerging, rapidly-growing economies will boost demand for Chinese products, which will aid the country in its transition to a consumption-driven economic model. Third (and we've mentioned this on a number of occasions in the past), using the yuan to settle AIIB loans will help establish the renminbi and decrease dependence on the US dollar on the way to ushering in a new era characterized by yuan hegemony.

*  *  *

Bonus: More from Barclays on the extent to which YDYL will relieve China's industrial overcapacity problem and a bit on the differences between the Silk Road Fund and the AIIB.

YDYL demand should help China export overcapacity

We estimate that YDYL projects would absorb some of the overcapacity in Chinese industries such as cement, steel and aluminium, even under conservative assumptions. If we envisage a scenario assuming that roads, railway, power generation and power distribution assets grow by 5% from their existing asset base among YDYL countries, this could create 137mt of steel demand based on the existing asset base. This represents around 14% of China’s total steel production capacity as of 2014. Such a boost to demand could effectively give back steel producers in China pricing power, as the industry would go from 22% oversupplied to 8%, based on our estimates.

Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB)

The AIIB was proposed by President Xi in his speech at the Indonesian Parliament on 3 October 2013. It was proposed to finance infrastructure construction and promote regional interconnectivity and economic integration. Application to be a founding member of AIIB ended on 31 March 2015 and 57 countries have been approved to be founding members. China has stated that it will not seek to be the single majority shareholder and is aiming to dilute its 50% of capital as other countries join and contribute their own capital. The bank is expected to be set up at the end of 2015.

Silk Road Infrastructure Fund

The US$40bn Silk Road Infrastructure Fund is to provide funding to carry out infrastructure, resources, industrial cooperation, financial cooperation and other projects related to YDYL. The company that manages the fund, The Silk Road Fund Co. Ltd, is backed by China’s foreign exchange reserves, China Investment Corp, Export-Import Bank of China, and China Development Bank. The fund started operation in February 2015 with US$10bn in capital, which was 65% contributed by China’s SAFE, which manages China’s Foreign Reserve. The fund is chaired by Jin Qi, the assistant governor of PBOC.

Jin Qi, the chief executive of the Silk Road Fund, said in March 2015 that the fund will invest in projects with reasonable mid- and long-term returns, and it is not an aid agency that does not consider returns. She added that the Silk Road Fund will not be the sole financer of projects; rather it will seek to cooperate with other financial institutions when investing in projects in the future.

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Philo Beddoe's picture

Bla bla bla bla bla....China is invoking the bridge to nowhere con. 

WTFUD's picture

Jealousy/Envy are Humongous Diseases.

MonetaryApostate's picture

What makes you think the elite give a rats ass if the economy implodes?  Do they not have all of the resources they need to live without about 80% of the population like indefinitely?  So, the only flaw I see, is that where people underestimate the enemy....  The system is in their favor, but on the other hand, I don't think the east is just going to lay down and take it... (Expect war)




suteibu's picture

At least China has a plan that does not involve overthrowing foreign governments, droning the unfortunate civilians of foreign nations, building multiple military bases in every foreign nation along the road,  or sanctioning foreign nations that, for whatever reason, don't want to do business with China.  

Seems to be a step forward for humanity.  You should hope this model works.

angel_of_joy's picture

If China has a "collapsing" economy, what does US have then ?

suteibu's picture

Exactly.  However, the solutions that each nation is proposing to resolve their problems are diametrically opposed.

Dindu Nuffins's picture

Talking to yourself looks fun. Do you get paid for the comments in both accounts, or just one?

petkovplamen's picture

Exact. USA should worry about its dissapearing Middle Class(TM), not China's edconomy. Without the Middle Class(TM) buying useless garbage, USA is toast..

Problem is The Middle Class(TM) is an abberation, not the rule. The Middle Class is a fluke that happened because of WWII.

tarabel's picture



And where is China going to sell its merchandise to if the US and EU middle classes are defunct?

Most parasites know that they dare not kill their hosts.

Max Steel's picture

Only because of them muritards are allowed to do their zimbabawe printing . Only 60-62% american are in workforce , higher in europe .

Its the only reason why China hasnt issued gold back yuan because they are the one benefitting from american zimbabawe printing spree .

Max Steel's picture

Sorry tyler pser china economy isnt going to collapse and dilk toad initiative is not the last attempt to salvage chinese eco douche . Its an attempt tofurther strengthen their economy . another crap article by durden on China economy . Whose purpose is zh trying to prove by beating the deadhorse of chinese economy collapse meme . you have been beating the same meme for past three years meanwhile chinese eco kept on growing .

MonetaryApostate's picture

They have a number in the line of "Waiting to fall" economies...

Dindu Nuffins's picture

Give 'em time. We'll all be tibetans and uighurs eventually, don't worry

HolyfieldsOtherEar's picture

Now watch China start building sand castles on the Galapagos Islands and claim Peru as sovereign Chinese territory because Zheng He landed there 600 years ago.

Max Steel's picture

Hilarious..... ah you must be an exceptional murican . Look at s.china sea map and notice who is agressive there . Another muritard ranting without knowing the truth .

HolyfieldsOtherEar's picture

I'm looking at a map of the sea that ain't China and it's full of chicom sand castles. Give 'em back to the Philippines and Vietnam, comrade.

They give you a break from the textile mill to type this shiat?

Cautionary Tale's picture

Sean: My father was an alcoholic. Mean fuckin' drunk. He'd come home hammered, looking to whale on somebody. So I'd provoke him, so he wouldn't go after my mother and little brother. Interesting nights were when he wore his rings.

Will: He used to just put a belt, a stick, and a wrench on the table. Just say, "Choose."

Sean: Well I gotta go with the belt there.

Will: I used to go with the wrench.

Sean: Why the wrench?

Will: Cause fuck him, that's why.

Yen Cross's picture

 If that China Macro comes in soft, "just over an hour from now", It's going to be a nasty short squeeze going into London open.

 I've seen this " dog & pony" show before.

Philo Beddoe's picture

Do you think the IMF sent the memo in time? 

Hey...you there...Chinese central banker guy...you are good cop tonight ok? 

Hugs, Christine. 

847328_3527's picture

I suspect alot of that money will be embezzeld such as > half lf the $8 billion usa gave to the Paki military to fight terrists but as yet > $5 Billion is "unaccounted for."

Yen Cross's picture

  Philo, I'm flattered.

    If the PBoC decides to infuse more 'yuan' into the markets, the markets will use that 'yuan' to purchase usd, and borrow against it.(unless UST rates keep rising)

  That will just exacerbate the exchange rate problem. (china exporting inflation) to the United States.

 Have a nice evening.

Gab Timov's picture

ok Hungary, get ready to be flooded with China goods. 

To me this looks like a person with a blog and they go around asking if anyone else has a blog they'd like to share, when really they are just interested in promoting their own blog, but in this case, it's China looking to promote their own industrial over capacity. Their citizens don't even want to buy much local made stuff. Who says they are going to want to buy foreign made goods...stuff made in Hungary and Europe?

will ling's picture

dunno. would be the coffin for the west that's for sure.

Dragon HAwk's picture

World keeps Shrinking. Debt keeps Rising. same old same old

dreadnaught's picture

China thinks like a chess player, and mostly wins. Short and long term.

I loved the quoted parable here, "What are your thoughts on the French Revolution?" asked to a panel of Chinese leaders. Their answer; "It is too soon the tell"

Solarman's picture

LOL, because they have been winning for so long now.  Chinese elites are simply getting more money out of their country before it collapses.  


Aren't the Chinese killing Muslims in the western part of their country, and oh isn't Pakistan a Muslim country?

Dindu Nuffins's picture

It's amazing how a country that shat on itself for centuries, got conquered by Manchus and Mongols and ruled for centuries without autonomy, had numerous batshit ideas that killed millions...


Somehow becomes the poster boy for clever long-term thinking.

Wow, just wow.


FredFlintstone's picture

Yep, Chinese can't plan shit. Paraphrased from two smart first generation Chinese I know.

Max Steel's picture

nope idiot they arent killing their muslim citizens . done with your propaganda murican(  exceptionally douche )

q99x2's picture

Build it they'll come. It worked for Egypt.

biggestbrother's picture

I would be pretty worried if I were Pakistan and China is stopping the IRAN PAKISTAN pipeline there!  

I guess Pakistan will the become part of China. 

tarabel's picture



This is one of those articles that you need to read very carefully in order to understand what it is really saying as opposed to what they want you to think it is saying.

Let's start with the very evasive and lawyerly claim that the Silk Road initiative is in the "same order of magnitude" as the Marshall Plan. Well, yes, 120 billion is not TEN TIMES LARGER than 40 billion but it is 3 times larger.

It also neglects to mention the equivalent of another 120 billion in aid was provided before the official start of the Marshall Plan, which gets us to six times larger. Or the aid provided in Asia, which was not known under the term "Marshall Plan", which probably moves us pretty close to an order of magnitude larger than the Silk Road thingy.

Of course the article states that the Chinese deny that it is an equivalent of the Marshall Plan-- and with good reason. The Marshall Plan was aid designed to assist local manufacturing and economic activity to recover. The Silk Road initiative is seed capital that is provided to projects that are expected to generate ROI to China and will be fleshed out with actual loans on top of that.

The net result of the Silk Road will be to create further indebtedness to a number of very poor countries, who are also going to be saddled with a horde of Chinese workers building extra-territorial Chinese projects using Chinese materials in order to link China with profitable markets in Eastern Europe and provide hidden Chinese stimulus spending designed to support its own tottering industrial base and ensnare Central Asia in a web of Chinese mercantilism.

Nothing this rank, corrupt, and overtly colonial has been attempted since the Berlin-Baghdad Railway prior to the First World War.

Max Steel's picture

Yeah and usa trade deals are symbol of free trade and jobs creation . Tarabull what a load of crap you write . You are one thick cunt not even interested in learning facts instead of displaying your ignorance . What usa led institution like imf world bank are doing if they arent indebting poor nations with debt ? Chinese actually sign FTA unlike you murican douches who write secret trade laws harming everyone except corporates . Ttip tisa ttp undermines wto ptinciples too . Let that sink in hard in your numbskull .

tarabel's picture



And a very pleasant day to you, dear Max.

Last I heard, China was begging to get in on the TTP scam. Perhaps you have more current information than I.

As for the association between Americans and the subverted luciferian internationalists in control of the government, I assume that it is about the same as with you and the governing class in wherever you call home. And the same in China, as well.

Max Steel's picture

....... ..............

I call it American Political Idol. Everything is my team vs your team, unless it doesn't fit the narrative, then it is their team vs the other guys team, except when....

Critical thinking is a forgotten art.

emorybored's picture

One Road to Rule them all, one road to bind them.

roddy6667's picture

China's economy is growing at about 7.5%, not collapsing. This is a slowdown from the past few years. Also, they had a slowdown to single digit growth in about 2008.

Undiluted bullshit.

Max Steel's picture

.....lol yeah another crap article by tyler poser on China collapsing economy meme . facts hurt washington fluffers  . 

mijev's picture

If you believe China's growth stats then you would also believe the BLS unemployment and CPI figures. China relies on exports to the US and Europe whose economies are in the tank - no one has money to buy their products. It's probably better to look at industrial power consumption and shipping container figures to gauge the chinese economy and the past few years have been in decline.

laomei's picture

This will be fought against at every stage.  This is effectively a final solution to the great game of old and if allowed to happen, it will represent China locking down the next few centuries of economic dominance.

jtg's picture

The US and its vassal led block will try to stop it causing a lot of turmoil and suffering but in the long run will not succeed.

Joe A's picture

The Silk Road got cut at Palmyra...

piratepiet2's picture

without really having studied the matter, here is my impression :

the ill-defined "one belt, one road" initiative seems to be a reaction to America's pivot/rebalance to Asia aka grand containment strategy of China.  The latter seems to include an implied threat of a maritime blockade ( think strait of Malaka ).  The Chinese need overland options to mitigate such threat. 

The Europeans, meanwhile, have little interest in going along with America's schemes, because it is the trade routes to Europe that are being jeopardized by American posturing in the South China sea.  Europe has an interest to support overland connections between China and Europe, and alternative shipping routes through the Arctic if at all feasable.