The United States And The Race For Global Hegemony

Tyler Durden's picture

Submitted by Federico Pieraccini via Strategic-Culture.org,

The previous article focused on the definition of an international order, globalization, geopolitical theories and how this has changed the notion with which a nation exercises control over a foreign country. In this second part I intend to examine the various geopolitical theories, their translations into modern concepts, and practical actions that the United States have undertaken in recent decades to aspire to global dominance.

The Strategy Of Rimland

Keeping in mind the geopolitical theories discussed in my previous article, we understand that in order to achieve control over the so called-Heartland, Washington has often resorted to the Spykman theory (Rimland). This is because the US has repeatedly found it extremely difficult to directly control the powers that occupy the geographical space described in the Heartland theory of Mackinder, namely Iran, Russia and China.

The US has repeatedly tried to ensure that nations composing the Inner Circle (Rimland) remained under their control so as to indirectly control the Heartland and encircle it.

In this sense, Europe was conquered thanks to the Second World War and the American intervention against Nazi Germany. The end of World War II saw Europe become an integral part of the US Atlantic system, an important part of surrounding the Heartland.

The expansion and conquest of other areas of the Rimland (Inner Crescent) continued during the Cold War in Asia through wars in Korea and Vietnam. But its failure left serious doubts about Washington's ability to sustain its military power projection so far away from home, trying to occupy foreign countries with troops on the ground. There were limits to seeking to rule the world.

In the Middle East, another area of paramount significance, Washington has always had as its primary goal the prevention of post-revolutionary Iran conquering the area. For this reason the Saudis have always been great American allies. They are the chosen regional power, thanks to oil and the financial system of petrodollars, with the purpose of ensuring a constant pressure on Iran and surrounding nations in the interests of Washington’s against Heartland nations such as Iran. In this sense, Turkey is unsurprisingly a NATO member incorporated into the Western system of power.

The final strategy has always been the same: to control nations neighboring the Heartland (Rimland countries) through direct military intervention, economic and financial terrorism, or cultural soft power -- all for the purpose of putting pressure on Russia, Iran and China.

The American unipolar moment began in earnest following the fall of the Berlin Wall and the dissolution of the Soviet Union, thereby offering the American elite the crazy idea of seeking to achieve total global hegemony by conquering the nations of the Heartland, especially through economic and military means.

During the Cold War, the more realistic goal was to prevent other nations from forming an alliance that would manage and occupy the heart of the land. With the end of the Soviet Union, the main occupier of the Heartland and main rival to the United States had collapsed. This led to the idea of world domination by Washington becoming reality.

From Mahan to MacKinder

The United States has always placed great importance on Mahan’s theory, considering it a complement to physical invasion by land as well as economic domination of the countries composing the Heartland and Rimland. For nearly a century it has been a fundamental pillar of American doctrine in matters of foreign policy.

The US Navy has often played a decisive role in US victories from the beginning of the twentieth century up to the fall of the Berlin Wall, the First and Second World Wars included. In the years that followed, its decline has had direct consequences for the implementation of the plan for global domination based on the three geopolitical theories analyzed above, practically setting aside Mahan’s theory in particular in order to focus on domination of land.

From 1990 to 2005, the importance of aircraft carriers and air support during the many US wars have been fundamental. Nevertheless, the bulk of the work has always been done by ground troops. Fighting took place not between countries or between ships or aircrafts but on the ground with the assistance of ships and aircrafts. It is a fundamental difference.

Since 1989, the influence of Mahan’s theory has been gradually decreasing in the strategies employed by policy-makers in the Pentagon, favoring instead land invasions, such as with Iraq and Afghanistan, or favoring the so-called soft power approach in the form of revolts, coups or armed insurrections as in Ukraine, Libya and Syria. The relative decline of the US naval fleet has therefore been a predictable consequence.

Forget about Mahan, here is MacKinder + Globalization

A powerful instrument for subduing the nations of the Heartland, in addition to boot on the ground and the dollar, has been globalization. To work, world globalism requires the absence of sovereignty for individual nations, regardless of whether they are allies or not, as well as massive economic interdependence, dictated by a financial system based on the dollar and completely arranged in favor of Washington and the Federal Reserve. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the United States forged ??a global neo-liberal model, based on the concept of consumerism and a parasitic capitalist economy, in combination with the unbridled use of military power.

With the collapse of the former Soviet republics, Washington began to move closer to the Heartland, mainly over land, increasingly moving up to the borders of the Russian Federation. The EU widened the membership of these countries in 2004, then incorporated them into NATO.

To achieve global domination Russia has to be controlled in virtue of the position it occupies in the Heartland. Given the military power of the United States in 1989, lacking any credible rivals, the MacKinder theory began to take shape in terms of a strategic approach from Washington’s perspective. This happened to the detriment of the Spykman theory, which preferred focusing on the Rimland countries and seas and oceans surrounding them using the Mahan theory of sea power to control the commerce and routes of rimland countries, thereby indirectly controlling the Heartland. This change in approach, with less naval power and more boots on the ground, together with economic power, continued to expand until the Obama administration.

With the ultimate goal of controlling Russia, the economic war by the Western elites in the early 1990s, thanks to Gorbachev and Yeltsin, ought to be revisited. This attitude revealed the intentions of Western elites, and only after a blatant refusal by Putin in 2000 to surrender the sovereignty of Russia to bow down before Washington, relations plummeted. Putin opposes economic and financial globalization, a western ploy to obtain a military surrender by getting the gobalists’ hands on the most valuable piece of the Heartland: Russia. With this concept in mind, it is easy to understand why Putin is so misrepresented by the Western media, all owned by large publishing groups, part of the international financial oligarchies.

The war in Afghanistan, the opening of NATO bases around Russia’s borders, the use of soft power in Ukraine for regime change through a coup, and destabilization using terrorism in Asia and in the center of the Caucasus, are part of a wider strategy to encircle and contain Russia, with goal of forcing Moscow to cry uncle and be incorporated into the Atlanticist network, by hook or by crook.

The ultimate goal always leads back to the question of being able to control the heart of the earth and its resources, represented largely by Russia, Iran and China. The ultimate goal is to gain a stranglehold on the rest of the continents, from Europe to Asia, enabling virtual control of the entire globe. The mission is always the same. It never changes. It is world domination. The approach alone changed once the Berlin Wall fell. The United States’ confidence in its own cultural, economic and military resources from 1989 has led it to construct an international system based on the principle of corrupt turbo-capitalism in combination with a strong dose of military bullying. Washington’s neoliberal ideas have often enjoyed strong momentum and huge support thanks to the military. Washington found itself in a position to intervene in almost every global situation using tools like soft power in regime change (Ukraine), the Arab Spring (Tunisia and Egypt), and even resorting to hard power through military aggression in so-called nation-building projects (Iraq, Libya and Afghanistan).

The aim, as always, is to put the Heartland under pressure coming from every direction, until its economic collapse and the final military conquest.

Even the US military bases follow this logic, surrounding the Heartland through the nations of the Rimland. Not surprisingly, Iran, China and Russia appear to be completely surrounded in a land-based approach a la MacKinder. Another example is the ABM Systems (Anti-Ballistic Missile) targeting China, Russia and Iran in order obviate their ability to inflict casualties on the United States in the event of war.

In this sense, another vital nation for US Interests is Japan, which represents a formidable containment towards China. On the island of Okinawa alone, about 400 kms from the Chinese coast, about thirteen US military bases are hosted. Similarly, all the countries overlooking the seas bordering the Rimland are strategically important countries for Washington. No wonder panic has been induced by Duterte’s victory in the Philippines. Special attention continues to be given to the nations of Southeast Asia, like Vietnam and Malaysia. Washington fears having fewer allies in its strategy of subduing the Rimland in order to contain China.

Looking at a map it is easy to see how the American empire pushes towards the Heartland from all directions, directly or indirectly, together with its allies. Against the Republic of China there is pressure from the south-east, courtesy of Japan and the US naval presence in the China Sea. From the west pressure is exerted against Russia by expanding NATO/EU. From the south-west, pressure is brought to bear on Iran through the Saudis, Qatar, and US bases in the Middle East. To the south, in addition to NATO member Turkey, Washington would like to team up with India to complete the encirclement of Russia, representing a huge missing piece that makes clear the importance of New Delhi in American strategy.

The last twenty-five years were dominated by policy makers in the US who, firstly, had the idea that direct conquest of the Heartland nations (and some Rimland nations) was possible and, secondly, that it was preferable to pursue a conquest by land of the relevant area and that this was the perfect historical moment to do so. Hitler thought the same way. Not only cultural and economic control was being suggested, but a real military approach to impose a solution acceptable to the elites in Washington. The countless wars since 1989 -- Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, Somalia, Libya, Syria and Iraq -- have been a strategic choice employing ground forces for the purpose of conquest. At the same time we must not forget the soft power used during the Arab Spring and in Ukraine. These are complementary approaches, updating a hundred years later the theory designed by MacKinder to the technology now at our disposal, while offering the military option to conquer the nations of the Heartland. This doctrine has placed to the side the naval approach, theorized by Mahan, which provided the use of ships to block commercial routes, and using the supremacy of the seas to contain the Rimland, thereby dominating the Heartland and mastering the world.

The most recent doctrines, from the administrations of Bush to Obama, have used a mix of MacKinder’s theory in combination with the latest tactics that apply human rights, known as soft power. The consequences of this approach have led to unimaginable disaster for the United States, where we see the Middle East sinking deeper into chaos and increasingly pushing countries of the region into a Shia alliance. This has led to increasingly united objectives for nations like Iran, China, India and Russia (a complete failure of the the Cold War objective that aimed to prevent an alliance between China and Russia). More generally, India still remains an ally of Moscow and on good terms with Washington, deciding not to openly side with one or the other.

The next article will focus on the reactions that Iran, China and Russia have adopted over the years to repel the continual assault on their sovereignty, and how the American drive for global hegemony has actually accelerated the end of America's unipolar moment, giving birth to the multipolar reality in which we live. The fourth and last article will focus on the new Trump administration, and how it will probably change the approach to US foreign policy that has prevailed over the last 30 years – a throwback to the last century.

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Boris Badenov's picture

President Trump needs a band for Inaug. Day

I suggest Judas Priest. 

Songlist:
  1. You've got another Thing coming
  2. Some Heads are Gonna roll
  3. Deliverin' the Goods
  4. Living After Midnight
  5. Victim of Changes
It would be great!
Nekoti's picture

How about Avenged Seven Fold? This Means War.

beemasters's picture

The US global hegemony has been achieved so far by force and installing US-friendly dictators in key nations. What's going to change???

Raging Debate's picture

Beemasters - What is going to change? Actually, the result is always the same with .gov and empire. You run out of other people's money. 

MonetaryApostate's picture

Do you want to see the future?  I assure you Venezeula IS The future for most of the known world...

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sUvKMqj4q7E

TheObsoleteMan's picture

He could have them play "breaking the law" and dedicate it to Hillary. Throw in "Hell Rider",  "Pain Killer" and "Night Crawler" just for good measure!

tyberious's picture

Rob Halford is a homo! Just saying, homo music is ok, but not presidential.

peddling-fiction's picture

You would be right. It was quite disturbing to find out. Heck, lots of queers in the music industry.

Krungle's picture

You were disturbed to find out that a guy who dresses like a gay leather man is in fact a gay leatherman?

peddling-fiction's picture

Chuckle.

In the 80´s we did not see what was right in front of us.

Now people are not seeing other things right in their faces, while playing with their notso-smartphones.

Raging Debate's picture

Maybe every heavy metal dude dressed in leather and chains was gay in the 80's. 

peddling-fiction's picture

Look at this video by Led Zeppelin.

Robert Plant looks very gay here-->

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Q7Vr3yQYWQ

Raging Debate's picture

Fiction - Nah, watched it good tune. Anyways, I am talking about full leather, cheap metal chains and the leather hat as the profile. 

monad's picture

Plant was bait for ladies.

monad's picture

He gets a pass because he's not taxing me, or insisting my children must be gay. I admire his talent, but I don't care to also fuck him.

Downing and Tipton own their machines. BEST

TheObsoleteMan's picture

He gets a pass because he is English. Tough to find a straight Englishman in any musical genre.

Kirk2NCC1701's picture

Why do Russia and China keep their borders so close to our military bases, NSA listening posts, and CIA field offices?

How can we tolerate such blatant imperialism?

(are the Sarc tags really necessary?)

Reaper's picture

Delusions of exceptionalism dance in their heads.

AriusArmenian's picture

As to the Mackinder’s geopolitics: ‘Who controls East Europe commands the Heartland: Who controls the Heartland commands the World-Island: Who controls the World-Island commands the world’ is utter nonsense.

This lunatic theory has been used as the excuse by the British then the US to demonize and target Russia. It is amazing how ideas that are irrational drive policy. It shows the irrationality of human beings that hold onto a theory with religious conviction. 

It is a very convenient theory for the supremacist US that is willing to put all humanity at risk in its drive to rule the world.

Raging Debate's picture

Arius - Haha I know. For larger countries and defending invasion oceans still matter. The US has a northern and southern 'front' if it came to attack, though right now I dont see if from Mexico or Canada. Russia has a western and southern front. Good luck overcoming and successfully invading either one.

Though a couple hundred finance dudes with a model sure has come close. Reminds me of a few hundred Spanish dudes with cannon and muskets conquering Mexico and Carribean territory of millions of people. 

Urban Redneck's picture

With the focus on cartography and perspectives, I wonder if they're going to get around to mentioning the Great Game in part three.  You have to connect the waypoints in way which which is comprehensible to the average map user in the peanut gallery.  The people who this for a living already know the terroir and speak the language.

Stimulati's picture

This site doesn't even hide it's anti-Americanism anymore.  All you 'blame America firsters' should move to Moscow.  Love America or leave it!

peddling-fiction's picture

Nope, most Americans that post here love America and want to MAGA.

Reaper's picture

Obiedence is a slave's virtue.

Krungle's picture

Who here hates America? It seems to me everyone is complaining about the psychopaths who have taken over the nation in their traitorous pursuit of world domination. Last I checked there was nothing in the constitution about sending Americans to die while murderingn foreigners in order to make money for big banks and corporations. So your comment is off the mark. If you want to murder people in foreign countries for banks, please join one of the many professional merc companies. We don't really need to be spending tax money or going into debt to finance your insanity.

TheObsoleteMan's picture

You are mistaken in your premise. First, you confuse the government with the country {allot of people do that} THEY ARE NOT ONE AND THE SAME. I love my country {well, ok, maybe half of it, the other half can't decide which bathroom to use}, but I despise the government.

Raging Debate's picture

I dont know man. Analysis on Russia and Iran perhaps. But it looks since at least Nixon went to China we considered them a vital hedge against the Russians. And it also loooks to me the hope was passing them the baton of world currency reserve. China is a real wild card in my eyes.

It is a love/hate relationship with the USA. Personally, I agree with Napolean that always thought it a bad idea to feed a hungry dragon. Feeding it snacks slowly for mutual benefit with the American people  seemed more wise than handing them a feast.

Napolean also learned the very hard way international bankstas have zero national loyalty and to not trust them. Conning him into attacking Russia is as bad an idea now is it was then. Same deal with Hitler. With China, I liken it to the wisdom of Frankenstein's monster. It may likely fully turn on you in the endx even though the reason for building it may have seemed like sense at the time. 

peddling-fiction's picture

You could feed Monsanto GMO's to the dragon and then spray some chem trails on his lair.

Add a cell phone tower over his abode and that dragon will be slowed down.

BobEore's picture

Like a slightly brain-addled boy eager to show off his new toy to the neighborhood kids, our author, having discovered some molding and decrepit toy soldiers from an ancestors attic, proudly displays his treasure with nary a notion of it's state of worthless decay.

Instead, these tattered remnants of older times are proferred as the latest conceptual novelty here. Some shopworn notions from the C19th are presented as if relevant to a different millennium, while the authors' cabal of paymasters are "Eurasians" posing themselves as bitter enemies of "Atlanticists," and defenders of the "truth" against the "lies" of their nefarious opponents!

All of which would be but a slightly bizarre and embarrassing spectacle for the onlooker - were it not for the duplicitous agenda concealed within such knavery. For the glossing over of Israel's presence as the primary "geopolitical force" and it's Sionist PNAC as the primary weapon of mass destruction for the West, is the object of the exercise here. For the careful reader, the attempted substitution of "Washington" as headquarters of the true "Evil Empire" of the moneychangers is painfully transparent... as are the motives for the attempt. It was some years back that the modus operandi of the operation was openly stated by the sionist media -

"The best way to preserve the American empire is to eventually give it up. Setting the stage for global governance can only be done with American leadership and American-led institutions" wrote Alexander Joffe in the journal of the Jewish Institute for National Security Policy (JINSA), in 2004. And on whose behalf would such "global governance" be? Why the same parties who are in charge of convincing Americans, on pages such as this one, to give up their sovereignty and independence to a dual-citizened cabal of agents of a foreign power - a power whose interests are inimical to those of the intended dupes of this ploy.

Give it up indeed! Give it up - you tricksters, sock puppets, and scribblers in the pay of the uisual suspects... your game is exposed, your Emperor has no clothes, while the length of your nose[s] demonstrates your lying intent as always. Well past time for 'single-passport' citizens of an America under concentrated attack to turn attention to turfing the duplicitous double dealers and their hired pens. The new "Great Game" is taking place in the Americas, not Asia, and will be won or lost in the fusilades of agit-prop and counter propaganda between dissemblers and real patriots!

 

Raging Debate's picture

Bob - Excellent writing style and messaging. Better than I probably could write. I will be a little  kind as it is Crhistmas eve. Fake Jews, become real ones and accelerate some of your good works toward consciousness transferral, such is withing a couple decades grasp. Such must yet continue be the goal of man, to finish evolving. Conquest, while some necessary and some not are now worthless logic compared to the now attainable goals of immortality in your own lifespan. 

 Of course self defense will be necessary in between, I am not naive. Glad to see a stated goal of this with Calico and Google. Promote the hell out of the effort to thepublic and make it your goal. It is Ok at that point to state publically anyway attempting to sabotage entering the promise land to pay. Defeat of death itself is the one thing any mind on earth can agree with. Enter the promised land. Merry Christmas to all people of all nations. 

Faeriedust's picture

Without Death, Life is meaningless.  The defeat of death would be the defeat of our humanity.  "Evolution", indeed.  Not to mention that immortality MUST come hand-in-hand with rigorously limited reproduction, as a finite world cannot support infinite human inhabitants.

Humanity as a whole is still at the adolescent stage of maturity, at best.  It is by no means ready for immortality. 

Ms No's picture

The Great Rim Job...

Sounds like something these bastards would be into.  Things have gotten much more serious since the days of trickle down. 

 

MASTER OF UNIVERSE's picture

I'll give the 'theory' two thumbs down.

Raging Debate's picture

Master - Being nice today? Well good then Merry Christmas to you. 

earleflorida's picture

"The Revenge of Geography" by Robert D. Kaplan 9/10/13

great read, and sums up all above : note george kennan imput

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_F._Kennan

Ms No's picture

Every time I see a map of our bases in the ME I can't help but imagine Iran getting nuked at some point.  If an exchange went down with Iran and Israel, exclusively (hard to imagine that at this moment in time and it would be better if it was an area more expendable), It might cement the globalist fervor for another generation.  It could give them all the momentum that they need.

Look at what destroying Europe and the fervor following the Holocaust got them.  Is Israel really that important to the globalists when the plan is owning the whole world?  Globalists show zero signs of being truly religious in any form.  Israel appears to have no significance to them outside of strategy.   If you own most of the world why would Israel be so vital?  They seem to use the same tricks repeatedly and why shouldn't they go for it again when it has been so successful in the past?

Supposedly Israel is Rothschilds' personal fiefdom.  For the sake of argument, assuming they are partial to the place for egomaniac reasons, we still might see a day where a new Rothschild and their globalist friends see it differently.  If they ever gave a shit outside of controlling the hub of the main three Abrahamic/monotheistic religions it was probably based on it being an untouchable strategic staging point within proximity to oil stores.  If this were to be the case and Iran got a nuke, they still wouldn't be safe.  It might actually work out perfectly for them.  As long as everything doesn't go up. 

 

Raging Debate's picture

Interesting and realistic thought. Its Christmas. So I hope I get a pass for saying this. Why do people sell out for.40 pieces of silver? Think on it. Good news, if all did this we wouldnt have made it out of caves. Still, some must be wise as serpents but act gentle as doves. Try being funny too. People are far less likely to kill you for there rackets. For some reason truth as most comedy doesnt compel violence as flat out detail expression.  Dont ask me why I dont know why. 

monad's picture

Every time somebody says "our" and blames "my" I think about how not ours and not mine the things they piss on about are.

ZOG. All of it. Turn on. Tune in. Drop out.

Faeriedust's picture

What idiots.  Say after me: America is not Britain.  The "Heartland" is irrelevant when your base is a SEPARATE CONTINENT.  The "Heartland" is important to would-be world powers in EUROPE.  MacMahan's doctrine was an intelligent strategy for leveraging BRITAIN'S chief strength to achieve control of EURASIA.  AMERICA doesn't need Eurasia.  We have our own half of the world.  And in case nobody's actually looked at the "Heartland" territory, it's a massive and appallingly barren stretch of terrain, worn out and ecologically impoverished by about 100,000 years of human occupation.  Much of it is deep desert, even salt desert.  It's neither desireable nor productive.

America needs to cut its emotional apron-strings to Europe and British political and military ideology.  Just because we speak the same language (sort of) does not make our strategic, social, and economic imperatives identical.

And yes, a relatively peaceful but separate existence from the Heartland Trio of SEPARATE China, Russia, and Iran is eminently more productive than being locked in mortal combat/dependency with an alliance (Shanghai Cooperation Organization, anyone?) between them.  

Matteo S.'s picture

Well you missed one key point. The world has shrunk thanks to progress in transport's speed.

So Americas are basically to the world what Britain was to Europe and Asia.

The Americas from Canada to Cape Horn, are barely 14% of the world population. And they are isolated and peripheral to the huge continental mass made of Eurasia and Africa.

Making this statement is not approving imperialist disruption by the sea power, be It Britain until WW1/WW2 or the US since WW1/WW2.

The point is that almost everybody, including most of the american people, has an interest into putting this warmonger predatory elite out of harm's way through pacific means. Because this Mackinder game is a negative sum game.

quasi_verbatim's picture

No hegemon can withstand beong heated to 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit, end to end  in a quarter second.

No big ship navy can sail through a barrage of hypersonic ship killer missiles.

IronForge's picture

We now have a stabilizing Multi-Polar World.

Thanks to RUS, IND, CHN, and the Indy/Populist Voters of the USA - the Hydra-Hegemon's Grip 'round the world is slipping a bit.