"The End Of Truth" - Hayek Saw It All Coming Over 70 Years Ago

Tyler Durden's picture

The Road To Serfdom (authored by F.A. Hayek, first publ;ished in 1944)

Excerpts from Chapter 11 - The End of Truth

Annotated via Crossroad.to/heaven,

"The most effective way of making everybody serve the single system of ends toward which the social plan is directed is to make everybody believe in those ends. To make a totalitarian system function efficiently, it is not enough that everybody should be forced to work for the same ends. It is essential that the people should come to regard them as their own ends."[p.171]

Berit's comment: Ponder that statement. It helps explain the significance of universal service-learning. Like socialist youth in Nazi (National Socialism) and Communist countries, all must embrace the new ideology. Those who don't -- the intolerable dissenters -- must be silenced.

The next section elaborates:

"Although the beliefs must be chosen for the people and imposed upon them, they must become their beliefs, a generally accepted creed which makes the individuals as far as possible act spontaneously in the way the planner wants. If the feeling of oppression in totalitarian countries is in general much less acute than most people in liberal countries imagine, this is because the totalitarian governments succeed to a high degree in making people think as they want them to."[p.171]

The strategies that accomplish this mental change include numerous subtle and obvious forms of propaganda. Schools, the media, children- and youth-service teams, corporations, etc.... every source of propaganda must share the same vision. Though totalitarian, it will be designed to sound noble, compassionate and fair to all. Yet the result with be the exact opposite.

Ponder this warning from Dr. Thomas Sowell's review of Road to Serfdom:

"At the heart of the socialist vision is the notion that a compassionate society can create more humane living conditions for all through government 'planning' and control of the economy...


"The rule of law, on which freedom itself ultimately depends, is inherently incompatible with socialism. People who are free to do as they wish will not do as the economic planners wish. Differences in values and priories are enough to ensure that. These differences must be ironed out by propaganda or power, if socialism is to be socialism. Indoctrination must be part of the program, not because socialist want to be brainwashers, but because socialism requires brainwashing.


"Idealist socialist create systems in which idealist are almost certain to lose and be superseded by those whose drive for power, and ruthlessness in achieving it, make them the "fittest" to survive under a system where government power is the ultimate prize.... The issue is not what anyone intends but what consequences are in fact likely to follow."

In his article, aptly titled "A Road to Hell Paved with Good Intentions," Sowell points out that "Marxism as an ideal continues to flourish on American college campuses, as perhaps nowhere else in the world." Collectivist visions appeal to academic idealists and others who ignore the lessons of history.

"....all propaganda serves the same goal—that all the instruments of propaganda are coordinated to influence the individuals in the same direction.... The skillful propagandist then has power to mold their minds in any direction he chooses, and even the most intelligent and independent people cannot entirely escape that influence if they are long isolated from all other sources of information. [p.171-172]

President Obama took control of this change process by transferring workers from the private sector (corporations, private enterprise...) to the government service sector. With the controlled media on his side, the masses are not exposed to contrary facts.

"...even the striving for equality by means of a directed economy can result only in an officially enforced inequality—an authoritarian determination of the status of each individual in the new hierarchical order—and that most of the humanitarian elements of our morals, the respect for human life, for the weak, and for the individual generally, will disappear....


"The moral consequences of totalitarian propaganda which we must now consider are, however, of an even more profound kind. They are destructive of all morals because they undermine one of the foundations of all morals: the sense of and the respect for truth.


"...in order to induce people to accept the official values, these must be justified, or shown to be connected with the values already held by the people, which usually will involve assertions about causal connections between means and ends.  ...people must be brought to agree not only with the ultimate aims but also with the views about the facts and possibilities on which the particular measures are based.[p.172]

Al Gore's battle against a mythical man-made global warming crisis illustrates this point. Globalist change agents agree that a worldwide crisis is needed to persuade humanity to embrace all the costly restrictions and regulations of government controlled "sustainable development." So they are willing to ignore facts and embrace myths and pseudo-science in order to reach their goal.

"We have seen that agreement on that complete ethical code, that all-comprehensive system of values which is implicit in an economic plan, does not exist in a free society but would have to be created....


"And while the planning authority will constantly have to decide issues on merits about which there exist no definite moral rules [apart from the Bible], it will have to justify its decisions to the people—or, at least, have somehow to make the people believe that they are the right decisions....


"This process of creating a 'myth' to justify his action need not be conscious. ...  So [the totalitarian leader] will readily embrace theories which seem to provide a rational justification for the prejudices which he shares with many of his fellows. Thus a pseudoscientific theory becomes part of the official creed which to a greater or lesser degree directs everybody’s action. [p.173]


"The need for such official doctrines... has been clearly foreseen by the various theoreticians of the totalitarian system.... They are all necessarily based on particular views about facts which are then elaborated into scientific theories in order to justify a preconceived opinion.


"The most effective way of making people accept the validity of the values they are to serve is to persuade them that they are really the same as those which they... have always held, but which were not properly understood or recognized.... The people are made to transfer their allegiance from the old gods to the new under the pretense that the new gods really are what their sound instinct had always told them but what before they had only dimly seen. And the most efficient technique to this end is to use the old words but change their meaning. Few traits of totalitarian regimes are ... so characteristic of the whole intellectual climate as the complete perversion of language....


"The worst sufferer in this respect is, of course, the word 'liberty.' It is a word used as freely in totalitarian states as elsewhere.... Dr. Karl Mannheim... warns us that 'a conception of freedom modeled on the preceding age is an obstacle to any real understanding of the problem. But his use of the word freedom is as misleading it is in the mouth of totalitarian politicians. Like their freedom, the 'collective freedom' he offers us is not the freedom of the members of society but the unlimited freedom of the planner to do with society what he pleases....[pps.174-175]


"In this particular case the perversion of the meaning of the word has, of course, been well prepared .... by many of the theoreticians of socialism. But 'freedom' or 'liberty' are by no means the only words whose meaning has been changed into their opposites to make them serve as instruments of totalitarian propaganda. We have already seen how the same happens to 'justice' and “law,' 'right' and 'equality.' The list could be extended until it includes almost all moral and political terms in general use.


"... the confusion becomes worse because this change of meaning of the words describing political ideals is not a single event but a continuous process, a technique employed consciously or unconsciously to direct the people....


"It is not difficult to deprive the great majority of independent thought. But the minority who will retain an inclination to criticize must also be silenced. ... Since many parts of this code will never be explicitly stated... every act of the government, must become sacrosanct and exempt from criticism. If the people are to support the common effort without hesitation, they must be convinced that not only the end aimed at but also the means chosen are the right ones."[p.175]


"Facts and theories must thus become no less the object of an official doctrine than views about values. And the whole apparatus for spreading knowledge—the schools and the press, radio and motion picture—will be used exclusively of to spread those views which, whether true or false, will strengthen the belief in the rightness of the decisions taken by the authority; and all information that might cause doubt or hesitation will be withheld."[p.176]

Stanford University Professor Steven Schneider illustrates it well. He said,

"On the one hand, as scientists, we are ethically bound to the scientific method, in effect promising to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but--which means that we must include all the doubts, the caveats, the ifs, ands, and buts. On the other hand, we are not just scientists but human beings as well. And like most people, we'd like to see the world a better place, which in this context translates into our working to reduce the risk of potentially disastrous climatic change.


"To do that, we need to get some broad based support, to capture the public's imagination. That, of course, entails getting loads of media coverage. So we have to offer up scary scenarios, make simplified, dramatic statements and make little mention of any doubts we might have... Each of us has to decide what the right balance is between being effective and being honest."

This applies even to fields apparently most remote from any political interests and particularly to all the sciences, even the most abstract.

"That in the disciplines dealing directly with human affairs and therefore most immediately affecting political views, such as history, law or economics, the disinterested search for truth cannot be allowed.... These disciplines have, indeed, in all totalitarian countries become the most fertile factories of the official myths which the rulers use to guide the minds and wills of their subjects...." [p.176]

In "Government religion in the United States," Erica Carle wrote:

"The separation of church and state argument for removing all traces of Biblical teaching from public life and public land is a gigantic fraud. Why? Because there is no separation of church and state. Government religion is a fact in the United States. What is wanted by the government religion adherents is not separation of church and state, but exclusive rights for their religion.


"What is the government religion? Auguste Comte (1798-1857), its French founder, called it the Religion of Humanity. The doctrines of the Positive Religion are now taught in the schools as a science which Comte called sociology. Sociology was to be the ruler science over all the other sciences and also the science of managing the world.... In a country that is supposed to be free,

  • its citizens are being subjected to sociological management,
  • its scientists and elected officials to sociological control, and
  • its youth to sociological education.

Hayek went on...

"...we must yet be on our a guard not to dismiss .[these aberrations] as mere accidental by-products which have nothing to do with the essential character of a planned or totalitarian system....They are a direct result of that same desire to see everything directed by a 'unitary conception of the whole.'...


"Once science has to serve, not truth, but the interests of a class, a community or a state.... As the Nazi minister of justice has explained, the question which every new scientific theory must ask itself is: 'Do I serve National Socialism for the greatest benefit of all?'


"The word 'truth' itself ceases to have its old meaning.  ...it becomes something to be laid down by authority, something which has to be believed in the interest of the unity of the organized effort and which may have to be altered as the exigencies of this organized effort require it.


"The general intellectual climate which this produces, the spirit of complete cynicism as regards truth which it engenders, the loss of the sense of even the meaning of truth, the disappearance of the spirit of independent inquiry.... Perhaps the most alarming fact is that contempt for intellectual liberty is not a thing which arises only once the totalitarian system is established but one which can be found everywhere among intellectuals who have embraced a collectivist faith and who are acclaimed as intellectual leaders even in countries still under a liberal regime.


"Not only is even the worst oppression condoned if it is committed in the name of socialism, and the creation of a totalitarian system openly advocated by people who pretend to speak for the scientists of liberal countries; intolerance, too, is openly extolled...." [p.178]


"This view is, of course, practically indistinguishable from the views which led the Nazis to the persecution of men of science, the burning of scientific books, and the systematic eradication of the intelligentsia of the subjected people.


"The desire to force upon the people a creed which is regarded as salutary for them is, of course, not a thing that is new or peculiar to our time. New, however, is the argument by which many of our intellectuals try to justify such attempts." [p.179]


The tragedy of collectivist thought is that, while it starts out to make reason supreme, it ends by destroying reason...."[p.180]

And as a reminder, this was writen in 1944!

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radbug's picture

And Pilate said to Jesus, "What is truth?", and Jesus replied, "What is reality?" (Spengler)

Tarzan's picture
Hayek Saw It All Coming Over 70 Years Ago,

And Moses wrote about it thousands of years ago, when he described the Tower of Babel, Where Nimrod convinced the people they would all love to build bricks all day for him, and make him their god.

It's the age old myth, that men can build a utopia, a paradise to replace the restful garden we came from, a place where we walked with God.

The Oligarch wants to sit as god over a complacent populous, who love there servitude, who think alike, who do not decent from the goals set before them, building the kings castle walls with a smile.

It will never happen, it will always eventually fail.  The Oligarchs find themselves kicking against God at every turn.  God made men to be unique individuals with a mind of there own and a direct relationship where each of us walks with Him. 

The days ahead will be an epic failure like never seen before!

Teja's picture

Well, we might find out more than we would like to know about reality, in the next decades. Even at our current state of knowledge, if you really start learning about reality, the universe, quantum properties, your belief in objective reality will be shaken. But my feeling is that modern physics will find ways to distinguish between a real world with self-consistent physics, and possible super large scale simulated worlds in which self-conscious individuals live.

My gut feeling, following some ideas like loop quantum gravity, long distance quantum entanglement and holographic universe, is that we might find us in one of the latter.

Scientists won't like it. But neither religious people, because that would imply a God totally different from THEIR special god, and especially one not requiring one to believe in HER.

Akzed's picture

Is there a place for unicorns in your fantasy?

CNONC's picture

If you have a "belief in objective reality," you have already allowed into your thinking an error which will prevent you from understanding the world in which you live.  The "scientific rationalist" is required to see himself as an outside, disinterested observer of reality.  He is, of course, an integral part of the system he observes and affects it by his observation of it.  He, further, cannot interact directly with the system, but is forced to rely on indirect measurement and observation filtered through his physical body.  He, and all of us, instead construct models of the universe in which we live in order to understand and predict the outcomes of our actions within the physical world.  These models have great utility, but usually are not particularly accurate.  As an example, if I ask you to draw a map of your route to work, that map, when compared to real road map, would be very different from reality, but is still 100% accurate in getting you to work.  You have created in your mind the simplest model of the world which gets you back and forth to work without distracting you with the minutae of the exact locations and directions which you are travelling.  (This is why most people can't give directions.)  The impolrtant thing to remember is that you do not interact with the "real world."  You interact only with models of reality which you, yourself, have created.  The great failing of all science, both social (to the extent that things like economics can be faked as science) and physical, is the almost ironclad tendency to reify the models, and for the scientist to believe that he has successfully described, and therefore understood, reality.  Only then can your "belief in objective reality" be shaken.

goober's picture

I agree with most of your analysis, except this "You interact only with models of reality which you, yourself, have created." some models we create and many are created by others and forced on us. That is a critical distinction of the forces at work to define or create what we percieve as reality.




All of the actual answers are in fact inside each of us. We simply need to know how to slow down and listen !

goober's picture

Jesus said many times and in many ways, look inside for truth and answers. He was a messenger not unlike Buddha or Krishna and many others. Most people have no idea what Jesus was actually saying and there is no doubt it has all been perverted by men. Nothing new at all with current religions and their pervsions of truth.

" The curious task of economics is to demonstrate to men how little they really know about what they imagine they can design"  FA Hayek

"The ideas of economist and political philosophers, both when they are right and when they are wrong, are more powerful than is commonly understood. Indeed the world is ruled by little else, practical men who believe themselves to be quite exempt from any intellectual influence, are usually the slaves of some defunct economist" JM Keynes

Both men would be traumatized at what has devolved into the current state of affairs and both were in fact quite right at the time. Here it is in video and pay attention to the end of it, the historical attributions are profound. J Papola is a genius IMO. Awesome video and not a new one.



Fireman's picture

USSA is living proof that the truth or indeed reality itself is of no relevance whatsoever to the pimps and whores that own the corpofascist nightmare seeking to reshape the planet in its sickening likeness. It will NOT happen, whatever the cost and the sooner the neocohens and globalist filth grasp that the better for all.

veeger's picture



it's pretty easy to overwhelm.....not everyone is the same......   

DuneCreature's picture

Freedom Watch has a little problem they would like a hand with.

They can't seem to get the FBI OFF THEIR ASS!

Gee, I wonder why we can't get our employees to get anything done?

I know what I do with employees who refuse to do what I ask them to.

But this isn't just me these clowns work for so I have to take the decision of what to do with these slackers to the Board of Directors;

That would be you good people.

Listen to attorney Larry Klayman explain what the problem is in detail and what the Board can do about it:




I say we vote to can Slippery Jim because he seems to be the main cause of the work stoppage. There could easily be a couple more FBI staff that need pink slips.

Live Hard, You Can Take An FBIer To A Case But You Can't Make Him Investigate If He's Paid Behind The Scenes Not To, Die Free

~ DC v5.0

CHX13's picture

Written from someone who must have given A LOT of thought to human nature and how the world operates.


When they (the CBs/IMF/B(i)S/etal) run out of gold to lease into "the markets", some hard truth(s) will become apparent to all. What will happen then, anyone's guess is as good as mine and maybe the insiders and central planners themselves don't even know... ... as there is no historical precedent for what's coming down the pike.

rahrog's picture

Outstanding article. Thanks, ZH.


Newspeaktogo's picture

Every snowflake out ther should read this article. Alas, it won't happen. They enjoy their coloring books, puppies, thumb sucking, and their temper tantrums in order to cut the real world off and to stay in their world of make believe. Fucking morons.

ronaldwilsonreagan's picture

you read this article so we know one snowflake got it.

cageysea's picture

Don't give up on all youth. Many are on to the tactics of the State. Like youth of all ages, they long to be free and will fight to be so. They need all the help they can get. Talk to them, teach them, listen to them. One would be surprised at how far a short Socratic dialogue will go in getting a young person to think for him or herself. Many don't want to be oppressed, don't want to be handled by 'the State.' These are the ones we need to encourage, these are the ones we need to support. They are the front line in the fight for that future which still holds sacrosanct the integrity of the Individual.

hxc's picture

I've been against the state completely for around ten years now and i'm only 26. Anecdotal but still

veeger's picture

just the first sentence ors2eqw`diko90lp[[[[[iju9.

VWAndy's picture

 Its not the lies its that we fall for them that matters. The lies we tell ourselves are the ones that let others play us with ease.

  Thats where doing the work on oneself in the mirror is so important. Having well grounded friends helps also.The real trick and coolest part is in teaching yourself not to become vested in beliefs rather then the knowing. Once I recognized that I was and still do confuse beliefs and the knowing for certain its like turning on the light. Tada! its OK to be wrong. Whats not ok is to be wrong and insist you aint.

  Call it finding your center or moral compass. It should be a early step on the road of life. If we dont do that work on ourselves first we are but pawns to be used by people that will use us until we are all used up. The vampire people. They would not be much of a threat to anyone without these mindless tools to carry the load for them.

 Tell me what group you believe in and I will show you your blind spot. Call yourself a democrat? You aint going to see any faults in Obama or Hillery. Next thing you know. You are out in the streets dressed up as a twat. Call yourself an enviornmentalist? Next thing you know we get a forrest of busted windmills out in the middle of the dessert rotting and waiting to fall over.

 Its the lies we tell ourselves that allow the propaganda to take root so well. Ditch the beliefs system and go with the things you can prove up honestly. Turning off the stupid box helps also.


Aristofani's picture

hayek - friedman - sowell are as responsible for the path to serfdom as the "totalitarianisms" they see under every bed.

the history of their puerile and superficial "economic" justifications for crony capitalism are obvious to those who dont have their heads up their narcississtic arseholes.

Mahatma Coat's picture

Totalitarian regimes are only imagined under beds you say?  Well, there was Germany under Hitler, Stalinist Russia, Mao's China, Castro's Cuba, and North Korea today under, what, the third of the Kim dynasty?  They all fit the totalitarian mold pretty well don't you think?

Billy the Poet's picture

Sometimes I imagine Turks under my ottoman.

Arnold's picture

I know I have Dust Bunnies under my Davenport.

Mahatma Coat's picture

Imagining Turks under the ottoman? Child's play. I've panicked irrationally about way worse.  The psychs tell me I'm paranoid, but so would you be if the whole fuckin world was against you.

Sphira's picture

Last year I walked through what used to be the Los Anitole in Dallas.. Prominently and proudly displayed was a large statue of Chairman Mao..right next to sections from the Berlin Wall... That suggests strongly to me there are larger..unseen powers at work cloaked... Benjamin Disraeli's quote in action

Aristofani's picture

stating the obvious doesnt make you a good economic thinker. The manipulation of peoples lives through "economics" doesnt need an hammer and sickle to be wrong.

What's the point of talking economics with a  bunch of Austrian school boys circle jerking ?

SixIsNinE's picture

the Kim Dynasty can't officially begin until she dumps Kanye and unites the Jong & Kardashian klans - then we will see an East-West Kim Dynasty Rise Again !

Teja's picture

The good thing is that Totalitarian Neo-Liberalist Consumerism does not require everybody to believe in it. It is sufficient if they buy the stuff, drive new cars and watch the entertainment crap.

The bad thing is it is now almost impossible to escape.

Billy the Poet's picture

Fine exposition. Where are the concrete details?

Aristofani's picture

Chile 1973 onwards. First the colonels then finance capital. All with milton "the monster" friedman's blessing.

Billy the Poet's picture

No documentation? And I'm more interested in Sowell.

Falcon49's picture

Crony capitalism....was what they were attempting to justify?  What a brilliant piece of deductive logic and BS.  .... I think you have a correlation = causation problem in your logic.   Crony capitalism is a product of corruption and the transition of a free society towards totalitarianism. 

Aristofani's picture

none of these poseurs as "economists" ever challenged corporations and absolutely had no fuckin' idea how money and central banks work in an economy. Their economic theories have and have never any connection to the real world, just for the ideological sheep. Of course, the ones that "matter", the powers that shouldnt be, loved them for deluding people about economics while they carried on with their manipulation of people's lives.

cageysea's picture

Good grief... Another bitter Paul Krugman sycophant (eyeroll).

Aristofani's picture

stupid fucks! you and your fellow ponce, krugman can go fuck yourselves.

last post from me on this to the circle jerking Austrian schoolboys.

“Capitalism is the astounding belief that the wickedest of men, will do the wickedest things for the greatest good of everyone.”

It's not about government. You will always need it. It's about making sure it stays in the hands of the people.

Nunyadambizness's picture

Put down the coffee cup (or crack pipe) and step away from the keyboard, slowly...  

I don't "need" government--I stand with Thoreau who said "The government that is best governs least." or George Washington who said " Government is not reason, it is not eloquence--it is force!  Like fire, it is a dangerous servant and a fearful master; never for a moment should it be left to irresponsible action."  And that's where we find ourselves--governed by those who would enslave us, by those who espouse "good" or "justice" but in fact only care about their own power.  As to your statement about Capitalism, CAPITALISM is the reason that nearly everyone on the planet has a better standard of living than their forefathers from `150 years ago.    As to circle jerks, I'll leave that to you.

Teja's picture

Oh, then I know some countries for you - Syria, Yemen - they have almost no government in many regions. You can do what you want, no government interference. And no Socialists. People are soo happy about this.

Actually the Austrians remind me of leftist Anarchists - they have great theories, but almost nowhere tried to implement the true gospel. There must be some reason for this?

tricorn teacup's picture

"Government" in those cases is whichever band of thugs happens to dominate in the region.  It may not be organized, but it still governs in so far as it dictates the social order, and punishes those who violate that social order.

Ace Ventura's picture

-Actually the Austrians remind me of leftist Anarchists - they have great theories, but almost nowhere tried to implement the true gospel. There must be some reason for this?-

What.....like Keynesian systems firmly entrenched over the last 100 years are going to be willingly given up by the power-interests benefiting from the gravy train just like that?

Same goes for government....like they're going to just willingly surrender the virtual omnipotence they gained during this long march towards globalism, and quietly go away?

Aristofani's picture

tell that horse shit to the Chileans.

Itinerant's picture

Indeed. Have you ever visited a "company town" in N America, where people worked in the mill, had housing built by the mill, went to the store owned by the mill, and where the police were provided by the mill? Harping on about a 19th century economist who first coined and described "capitalism" is like fighting ancient heresies. Corporate capitalism is as totalitarian as it gets. These Mises guys are just shills for the "owners' class", the most replaceable group in all of society. They are trying to make the serfs think that the we all owe our existence to the rich, and that without the owners, we would be lost. Reality is the exact mirror of this propaganda stunt. The rule of law basically means reinforcing relationships of private property. However, nothing has ever been more of a fiction than who owns what: not an inch of the earth's surface is owned without having been wrested from others by hook or by crook (usuallyu outright violence).

Ace Ventura's picture

--These Mises guys are just shills for the "owners' class..."--

LMAO! That's funny right there, I don't care who ya' are.

cageysea's picture

If you believe Hayek, Friedman, Sowell, Karl Popper, etc. pave the way for 'Crony Capitalism,' then you understand neither them nor cronyism.

Aristofani's picture

you and them are just like the bible bashers.

write, talk "good", do evil.

Read  a real economics book that will teach you something about the real world.


malek's picture

So Michael Hudson is currently your hero?

Tell you what, I have become very skeptical of even the most reasonable sounding "thinkers."
Look at Chris Hedges: he wrote a lot of good stuff, even interspersed with personal details how he came to that thinking, and now he has gone completely insane and is on an ongoing Trump-is-Hitler crusade.
A lot of fuckers -Paul Krugman comes to mind first- will write a lot about economics but never utter the word "debt" in a negative connotation, if at all.
There is a small number of economists who does seriously talk about "debt". Or so it seems until you discover they -to which I would include Michael Hudson and Bill Black- never advance to the obvious logical conclusion and utter the word "bankruptcy" and make it a central concept! But that makes them as clueless or evil as the before-mentioned fuckers, they're only covering it up one degree more.

(I still need to read "Killing The Host" by Michael Hudson, but his articles I read in the last 6 months make me doubt that bankruptcy will be touched on as more than a side note.)

VWAndy's picture

 The truth is not a thing that gives a rats ass what you think. It just is. Some will try and tell ya different. But that wont change the truth even a little bit. Eventually they will run right smack into the truth at full speed and it will hurt bad.

Aristofani's picture

not when your salaries are paid to you by the powers that should not be.

cageysea's picture

You gotta love Liberal Collectivists... Conspiracies everywhere!

Aristofani's picture

do you realize how oxymoronic that term is? I doubt it.

ask the sowell(less) man how much his pension is these days from the hoover institute for services rendered?


andrej's picture

Let's put is this way: Truth is what you believe, fact is what you verify.