The BBC Looks At "How Western Civilization Could Collapse"

Tyler Durden's picture

Authored by Rachel Nuwer via,

The political economist Benjamin Friedman once compared modern Western society to a stable bicycle whose wheels are kept spinning by economic growth. Should that forward-propelling motion slow or cease, the pillars that define our society – democracy, individual liberties, social tolerance and more – would begin to teeter. Our world would become an increasingly ugly place, one defined by a scramble over limited resources and a rejection of anyone outside of our immediate group. Should we find no way to get the wheels back in motion, we’d eventually face total societal collapse.

Such collapses have occurred many times in human history, and no civilisation, no matter how seemingly great, is immune to the vulnerabilities that may lead a society to its end. Regardless of how well things are going in the present moment, the situation can always change. Putting aside species-ending events like an asteroid strike, nuclear winter or deadly pandemic, history tells us that it’s usually a plethora of factors that contribute to collapse. What are they, and which, if any, have already begun to surface? It should come as no surprise that humanity is currently on an unsustainable and uncertain path – but just how close are we to reaching the point of no return?

A South African police van is set on fire following protests about inequality in 2016

While it’s impossible to predict the future with certainty, mathematics, science and history can provide hints about the prospects of Western societies for long-term continuation.

Safa Motesharrei, a systems scientist at the University of Maryland, uses computer models to gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms that can lead to local or global sustainability or collapse. According to findings that Motesharrei and his colleagues published in 2014, there are two factors that matter: ecological strain and economic stratification. The ecological category is the more widely understood and recognised path to potential doom, especially in terms of depletion of natural resources such as groundwater, soil, fisheries and forests – all of which could be worsened by climate change.

That economic stratification may lead to collapse on its own, on the other hand, came as more of a surprise to Motesharrei and his colleagues. Under this scenario, elites push society toward instability and eventual collapse by hoarding huge quantities of wealth and resources, and leaving little or none for commoners who vastly outnumber them yet support them with labour. Eventually, the working population crashes because the portion of wealth allocated to them is not enough, followed by collapse of the elites due to the absence of labour. The inequalities we see today both within and between countries already point to such disparities. For example, the top 10% of global income earners are responsible for almost as much total greenhouse gas emissions as the bottom 90% combined. Similarly, about half the world’s population lives on less than $3 per day.  

For both scenarios, the models define a carrying capacity – a total population level that a given environment’s resources can sustain over the long term. If the carrying capacity is overshot by too much, collapse becomes inevitable. That fate is avoidable, however. “If we make rational choices to reduce factors such as inequality, explosive population growth, the rate at which we deplete natural resources and the rate of pollution – all perfectly doable things – then we can avoid collapse and stabilise onto a sustainable trajectory,” Motesharrei said. “But we cannot wait forever to make those decisions.”

One of the most important lessons from Rome’s fall is that complexity has a cost

Unfortunately, some experts believe such tough decisions exceed our political and psychological capabilities. “The world will not rise to the occasion of solving the climate problem during this century, simply because it is more expensive in the short term to solve the problem than it is to just keep acting as usual,” says Jorgen Randers, a professor emeritus of climate strategy at the BI Norwegian Business School, and author of 2052: A Global Forecast for the Next Forty Years. “The climate problem will get worse and worse and worse because we won’t be able to live up to what we’ve promised to do in the Paris Agreement and elsewhere.”  

While we are all in this together, the world’s poorest will feel the effects of collapse first. Indeed, some nations are already serving as canaries in the coal mine for the issues that may eventually pull apart more affluent ones. Syria, for example, enjoyed exceptionally high fertility rates for a time, which fueled rapid population growth. A severe drought in the late 2000s, likely made worse by human-induced climate change, combined with groundwater shortages to cripple agricultural production. That crisis left large numbers of people – especially young men – unemployed, discontent and desperate. Many flooded into urban centres, overwhelming limited resources and services there. Pre-existing ethnic tensions increased, creating fertile grounds for violence and conflict. On top of that, poor governance – including neoliberal policies that eliminated water subsidies in the middle of the drought – tipped the country into civil war in 2011 and sent it careening toward collapse.

In Syria’s case – as with so many other societal collapses throughout history – it was not one but a plethora of factors that contributed, says Thomas Homer-Dixon, chair of global systems at the Balsillie School of International Affairs in Waterloo, Canada, and author of The Upside of Down. Homer-Dixon calls these combined forces tectonic stresses for the way in which they quietly build up and then abruptly erupt, overloading any stabilising mechanisms that otherwise keep a society in check.

The Syrian case aside, another sign that we’re entering into a danger zone, Homer-Dixon says, is the increasing occurrence of what experts call nonlinearities, or sudden, unexpected changes in the world’s order, such as the 2008 economic crisis, the rise of ISIS, Brexit, or Donald Trump’s election.

Some civilisations simply fade out of existence - becoming the stuff of history not with a bang but a whimper

The past can also provide hints for how the future might play out. Take, for example, the rise and fall of the Roman Empire. By the end of the 100BC the Romans had spread across the Mediterranean, to the places most easily accessed by sea. They should have stopped there, but things were going well and they felt empowered to expand to new frontiers by land. While transportation by sea was economical, however, transportation across land was slow and expensive. All the while, they were overextending themselves and running up costs. The Empire managed to remain stable in the ensuing centuries, but repercussions for spreading themselves too thin caught up with them in the 3rd Century, which was plagued by civil war and invasions. The Empire tried to maintain its core lands, even as the army ate up its budget and inflation climbed ever higher as the government debased its silver currency to try to cover its mounting expenses. While some scholars cite the beginning of collapse as the year 410, when the invading Visigoths sacked the capital, that dramatic event was made possible by a downward spiral spanning more than a century.

According to Joseph Tainter, a professor of environment and society at Utah State University and author of The Collapse of Complex Societies, one of the most important lessons from Rome’s fall is that complexity has a cost. As stated in the laws of thermodynamics, it takes energy to maintain any system in a complex, ordered state – and human society is no exception. By the 3rd Century, Rome was increasingly adding new things – an army double the size, a cavalry, subdivided provinces that each needed their own bureaucracies, courts and defences – just to maintain its status quo and keep from sliding backwards. Eventually, it could no longer afford to prop up those heightened complexities. It was fiscal weakness, not war, that did the Empire in.

So far, modern Western societies have largely been able to postpone similar precipitators of collapse through fossil fuels and industrial technologies – think hydraulic fracturing coming along in 2008, just in time to offset soaring oil prices. Tainter suspects this will not always be the case, however. “Imagine the costs if we have to build a seawall around Manhattan, just to protect against storms and rising tides,” he says. Eventually, investment in complexity as a problem-solving strategy reaches a point of diminishing returns, leading to fiscal weakness and vulnerability to collapse. That is, he says “unless we find a way to pay for the complexity, as our ancestors did when they increasingly ran societies on fossil fuels.”

A protest group in Argentina demonstrates against United States interference in the crises in Syria and Venezuela

Also paralleling Rome, Homer-Dixon predicts that Western societies’ collapse will be preceded by a retraction of people and resources back to their core homelands. As poorer nations continue to disintegrate amid conflicts and natural disasters, enormous waves of migrants will stream out of failing regions, seeking refuge in more stable states. Western societies will respond with restrictions and even bans on immigration; multi-billion dollar walls and border-patrolling drones and troops; heightened security on who and what gets in; and more authoritarian, populist styles of governing. “It’s almost an immunological attempt by countries to sustain a periphery and push pressure back,” Homer-Dixon says.

Meanwhile, a widening gap between rich and poor within those already vulnerable Western nations will push society toward further instability from the inside. “By 2050, the US and UK will have evolved into two-class societies where a small elite lives a good life and there is declining well-being for the majority,” Randers says. “What will collapse is equity.”

Whether in the US, UK or elsewhere, the more dissatisfied and afraid people become, Homer-Dixon says, the more of a tendency they have to cling to their in-group identity – whether religious, racial or national. Denial, including of the emerging prospect of societal collapse itself, will be widespread, as will rejection of evidence-based fact. If people admit that problems exist at all, they will assign blame for those problems to everyone outside of their in-group, building up resentment. “You’re setting up the psychological and social prerequisites for mass violence,” Homer-Dixon says. When localised violence finally does break out, or another country or group decides to invade, collapse will be difficult to avoid.

Europe, with its close proximity to Africa, its land bridge to the Middle East and its neighbourly status with more politically volatile nations to the East, will feel these pressures first. The US will likely hold out longer, surrounded as it is by ocean buffers.

A severe drought in Syria left many people – especially young men – unemployed, discontent and desperate, which may have been a factor that led to civil war

On the other hand, Western societies may not meet with a violent, dramatic end. In some cases, civilisations simply fade out of existence – becoming the stuff of history not with a bang but a whimper. The British Empire has been on this path since 1918, Randers says, and other Western nations might go this route as well. As time passes, they will become increasingly inconsequential and, in response to the problems driving their slow fade-out, will also starkly depart from the values they hold dear today. “Western nations are not going to collapse, but the smooth operation and friendly nature of Western society will disappear, because inequity is going to explode,” Randers argues. “Democratic, liberal society will fail, while stronger governments like China will be the winners.” 

Some of these forecasts and early warning signs should sound familiar, precisely because they are already underway. While Homer-Dixon is not surprised at the world’s recent turn of events – he predicted some of them in his 2006 book – he didn’t expect these developments to occur before the mid-2020s.

Western civilisation is not a lost cause, however. Using reason and science to guide decisions, paired with extraordinary leadership and exceptional goodwill, human society can progress to higher and higher levels of well-being and development, Homer-Dixon says. Even as we weather the coming stresses of climate change, population growth and dropping energy returns, we can maintain our societies and better them. But that requires resisting the very natural urge, when confronted with such overwhelming pressures, to become less cooperative, less generous and less open to reason. “The question is, how can we manage to preserve some kind of humane world as we make our way through these changes?” Homer-Dixon says.

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Mr 9x19's picture

agree, but you can't.


if you apply what you say, you have to explain why 70% of jails are not fulled by whites, so you have to make a genetical purge, in 21° century it is inacceptable to publicly say  such  sentences, even if that is true. based on this, nothing can be done. ever. it is the 2nd effect of post colonial  era. the failure has been to free every body, because in the world you always had dominators and dominated, make every body free and let money decide set the white to be moneymen and blacks to be free shit army.

go debate that in black  blocks... good luck to you.


Pope Clement's picture

All your classical history is belong to us if the new Russian chronology is correct. Italian Rome was not even a capital city until the very late Middle Ages and the Parthenon was constructed as a Christian basilica. See Anatoly Fomenko: History Fiction or Science on Amazon.

HenryHall's picture

>> Most civilizations fells not long after homosexuality was allowed and called normal as well with other perversion.

"not long" being about 600 years in the case of the Roman Empire.

techpriest's picture

Look at the currency debasement also. Rome was able to continue another 400 or so years after that.

Of course, if you count the Byzantines you would go even farther.

Still, using the black hole analogy from earlier, with a supermassive black hole the event horizon is not noticeable, save for the fact that you can't quite get outside of it any more.

logicalman's picture

WE are already in a black hole.

It's called the Universe.

Can't get outside of it.

Sirius Wonderblast's picture

What the Romans were not at all impressed by was effeminacy. They had a somewhat different way of defining it, mind you.

GUS100CORRINA's picture


I agree completely with your comment. Yes, people are going to freak out and be deceived.

There is a lot of evidence that the nephilim (Fallen Angels interbreeding with Human woman) are already here. Below is a reference.

Another resource I read years ago was titled: "UNDER THE INFLUENCE - How Christianity Transformed Civilization"

The book resource above discusses how ROMAN empire collapsed when Christian morality and ethics went into the toilet. We are seeing many signs of a moral collapse beginning to occur in selected areas of America.

lucitanian's picture

" We are seeing many signs of a moral collapse beginning to occur in selected areas of America."

Isn't that exactly what the Wahabis are saying about sellected areas of the Muslim Arab world?

Diatom's picture

Debt and NPP waste...

Onkalo kind of shit..


acetinker's picture

When Gandhi was asked about his perception of western civilization, he reportedly said, "I think it would be a good idea."

Pa-Rum-Pum!  I'll be here all week.  Be sure to try the veal!

trader1's picture

i'm glad to have found you again.  

love your work.


acetinker's picture

Work? Nah!

At this point I could be replaced by a machine with no moving parts.

That's the beauty of the interwebs, and by extension, The Hedge.

Everyone is equal in anonymity.  You never know who you're talking to-  could be a govvie; NSA, CIA, Russian spies lol!, a CEO, a housewife (not likely, but could be), or some poor schmuck living in a van and stealing bandwidth.

Oh, and I think you may have mistaken me for someone else, but thanks, I needed it!

trader1's picture

But a machine could not replace the heart that bleeds through your posts :-)

Whoever you are, your writing style sparked some old memories of someone who used to post here and for reasons unknown went silent after August 2013.  

Regardless, looking forward to reading your posts.

acetinker's picture

A lot of folks have gone silent over the years.  Did they give up?  Did they give in?

I don't think so.  Every now and again a post will stir the 'old heads' to action.

Those are the days I live for.

Be well, trader1!

Squid-puppets a-go-go's picture

future anthropologists will also marvel at how the matriarchy was so desperately frothing at the mouth to not just reform but DESTROY Western patriarchy that they formed an alliance ( exponentially more ) patriarchal Islam

TeamDepends's picture

House of Tavistock approves this message.

El Vaquero's picture

"AR-10's are cool, but small mags only for them."


I can get 25rd mags for them, but, the 20rd mags are a lot shorter and won't interfere with the rifle's use when shooting from prone.  Besides, when talking about precision shooting, 20rds is quite a bit.  

Raffie's picture

Ammo for AR-10 gets heavy for sure.

I bought a few silencers, but the paper work takes 6 to 12mo. Insane wait time.

If the Hearing Protection Act passes I get refunded for all my $200 stamps.

Hope that passes. Silencers rock. New pistol that has one built into the gun.

Trogdor's picture

Hate to be a nit-pick, but they're *suppressors* - not *silencers* ... Only movie directors and Congressdouches believe in the existence of a *silencer* .... along with the "pew!pew!" sound they make .... ;)

hobo with a shotgun's picture

Four-Leaf Tayback: "I don't know what it's called. I just know the sound it makes when it takes a man's life."

sinbad2's picture

"I'm %99.99 sure Russia and China would attack the US as well if our country fell into civil war."


Why, because they are bored and need something to do?


Countries invade other countries to steal, but the cost of invading the US would exceed the returns.

Americans have already strip mined most of Americas natural assets.

Raffie's picture

1 EMP 300miles up center of the US as the Amish will raise to power.

Only takes ONE. Also they would EMP us and come back a year later after most have died off.

Decades of payback coming for sure.

Sucks that a very small percent screwed over so many countries and we will have to pay the price for them.

Teja's picture

Amish will raise to power anyway. Just look at their birth rates.

IntTheLight's picture

China invading. Fifth column. Flooding our schools with their kids.

techpriest's picture

Also, the US has the plan to Americanize Chinese kids and send them back to spread our way of thinking. At least that's what the Chinese equivalent of ZHers think.

Knowing a lot of said students, it's more a case that parents over there know that their own schools (mostly) suck, employment opportunities are rare for most, even upper middle class, and they can afford to get their kids out. Australia is already too crowded, but the US is bigger and willing to take more people. On the bright side, they study, raise solid families, and do not believe the SJW nonsense.

BarnacleBill's picture

Spot on, Sinbad. No government of Russia would waste its time and energy to invade the USA under any circumstances - except in self-defence alone. Americans are programmed to believe that every nation is as aggressive and heartless as theirs is, but it's not true. Russia's empire is completely contiguous, and that suits the Russian mentality. And China's empire suits its people's mentality. There is no danger from that direction at all.

techpriest's picture

There is some danger with China. I like Chinese people, but their plan to deal with their huge population is to start exporting people to Africa, Central Asia, and elsewhere by the hundreds of millions. Some Chinese movies are starting to popularize the idea.

Then again, Europeans and Americans will not reproduce to save themselves. The imbalance will even out, and for the SJW crowd, Asians are not as tolerant as whites.

shamus001's picture

Yes, yes, if western civilisation can keep from lashing out, listen to their good masters who will tax the air they breath as a penalty for "global warming" and sit idly by as good slaves while the Elites mop up the last vesture of property and wealth, this indeed can be a "tolerant world for global peace"

...Until you wake up in the hell they created for you and there's not a damn thing you can do about it.

Raffie's picture

America's BIGGEST problem is we have had it too good for to long.

People in America for the most part do not understand what a true struggle to stay alive is.

I may wake up in hell one day, but at least I will have taken steps to make it more bearable to hold me over till things change or get better. Also there is strength in numbers.


Global warming is a real thing.

At least in my world. I eat chili and beef jerkey and there is clearly warming going on. No need for heaters at all.

veritas semper vinces's picture

Jewmerica biggest problems are two:

1) lack of real money.What we have is usury fiat ponzi scheme that has distroyed everything and what is worse is that most people dont even know about this,dont understend it and there is  no chance to try to correct it

2)total lack of any moral,spiritual values -and this will be the final nail in the total collapse of the social order.This is also irreversible

Kidbuck's picture

You want to see collapse? It's already happened, BBC is a day late and a pound short, just take a walk through Chicago, Detroit, or Baltimore. It doesn't get any more uncivilized than that.

August's picture

The Bay Area would actually be quite attractive, once you got rid of the population.

Vlad the Inhaler's picture

Flight is better than fight.  Get you to a tropical beach in a faraway land and enjoy the bikinis while Rome burns.

OverTheHedge's picture

Until you get eaten by the locals. Most island are hugely overpopulated and entirely dependent on food and water imports to survive. If they have to go old-school suddenly, most will look like Easter Island within a week, minus the giant heads, obviously...

meditate_vigorously's picture

China and Russia have enough of their own problems without wasting resources trying to occupy and unruly country. Your statement is ignorant and stupid.

Lets Buy The Dip's picture

these criminals are starting a finanical crisis 2.0. Are YOU ready? U are right but. The S&P is looking tippy toppy. 

I have joined a accuate newsletter here => and they called the 2008 crash very accurately, they are saying a sell off is probably coming soon. Go have a look. 

we are for some big shocks with the DONALD with finger on TWEET button and NUKE button. :-) *LOOK OUT*

thnigs in EUROPE look very it really time to push teh bug out button?

Lordflin's picture

The point of no return has long been in the rear view mirror.

This article takes weak or false premises... man made climate change, Syrian civil war as a template for collapsing society (I suppose in a sense this is true, as it is the result of greed and corruption, but has litttle to nothing to do with some general principle)... although the adverse effect of complexity is valid, but begs a bigger point, namely that...

Life itself is a Ponzi scheme. From the moment a thing comes to life, rather a single cell or a human society, the seeds are sown for its destruction. The only possibility for continued existence is growth. But the processes of decay increase more rapidly than the means of production and death occurs. Everything dies...

If life is the point the whole thing is a farce. Let's hope there is more to it than that as none of us are getting out of this alive, and nothing achieved at the hand of man will last...

Mission Canyon's picture

Agreed.  Blaming climate change is the de-facto reason for any problem for the BBC, CBC or any state broadcaster.  With regards to water shortages in Syria, perhaps a simple analysis of the demographics and population change in 45 years would reveal something obvious:

Syrian Population:  1960 - 4.5 million,   2004 - 17.92 million


Quadrupling the population might have an effect on the ground water supplies, but nope climate change.  Time to tax carbon and surrender control of all resources, distribution and freedoms to government appointed "experts".  Unfortunately all kids attending public schools and universities are force fed this garbage to the fullest extent.

lucitanian's picture

Isn't it funny how the addition of 4 million refugees into Syria caused by an illegal war brought down on Iraq by US/UK and its cohorts, was never seen as a crisis for that country in 2003, (refugees then accounting for 20% of the population.), yet when Europe with 500 million population receives 2 million refugees, its a crisis?

As for climate change and global warming, unsubstantiated denial on its own does not make for a reasoned argument. And quite frankly, despite the anti-science fashion that has captured the imagination of those less able to critically eventuate the vast data accumulated and peer reviewed, the phenomena are fact and the effects are real and will be devastating without a doubt.

Bigern's picture

Life is eternal. It is only the fleshly body that perishes. We will depart our body at its death. The body is necessary for us to inhabit this world, in this existence. It is so very temporary. If one views existence under this lens, then the horrors of the world are not permanent. The death of the flesh is simply a release. It is also a witness to others. Conviction happens with witness. This is our test. Our prooving ground. To choose. Do we choose the truth, or embrace the delusion that this is all some big pointless rat race, randomly slapped together like a blizzard at DQ? Slurp it quick before it melts.

No. We are purposed. Everything is. Everything happens for the purpose of actuating this choice. The Father would not have us automatons, nor would he have those who deny Him who created and died for them. Without the ability to make a choice, we would be stuck in the same conundrum the world is in. The worldly choices are all disastrous. Every poison has its flavor. Some will devour it, seeking only the fleeting euphoria of satifying their flesh, while the soul mourns.

HardAssets's picture

A stupid & corrupt leadership
A stupid & passive populace of sheep

Its already collapsed. The falling body just hasnt hit the ground yet.

SonsOfLibertyReborn's picture

A sound currency still requires a sound people, organized, efficient, healthy. The strength of the nation stems from the strength of its people. All of these necessities can only be achieve through an updated fascism or national socialism. As it stands, the race that built Western Civilization from nothing is too immoral, unhealthy, uncoordinated, spoiled, undisciplined, and weak. A mountain of Discipline must be foisted upon the white race, or the white race and the civilization that it built will perish.

We need right-wing fascism now. We can't defeat these barbarians if we give them the freedom to immigrate to our nations and destroy us. We can't defeat these barbarians if we are so uncoordinated and disorganized that we cannot meet their force with an equal or greater force. We can't defeat these barbarians if we allow the left to spread and practice their unproductive degeneracy. No tolerance for degeneracy.

Fascism or annihilation is the only choice facing us.

Adolf Hitler was right and he did nothing wrong. Read George Lincoln Rockwell. You will realize that the greatest fake news media lie is that National Socialist Germany was the bad guys.

Youtube: The Greatest Story Never Told.

Extremehedger's picture
Extremehedger (not verified) Laddie Apr 18, 2017 6:13 PM

I'm making over $7k a month working part time. I kept hearing other people tell me how much money they can make online so I decided to look into it. Well, it was all true and has totally changed my life. This is what I do...

Dickweed Wang's picture

I make 10 grand a week in cover charges at my cantina in Tijuana where people can watch your wife get fucked by donkeys. We have a really nice stallion on weekends also . . .

acetinker's picture

Laddie!  Old boy!

Did you read all the way to the bottom?

Originally appeared in American Renaissance, June 1999, issue 54 entitled ‘Cherchez le Juif.’ Stanley Hornbeck is the pen name of a Washington, DC area businessman. Kevin MacDonald, The Culture of Critique: An Evolutionary Analysis of Jewish Involvement in Twentieth-Century Intellectual and Political Movements, Praeger (1998) $65.00, 379 pp.


The Culture of Critique by Kevin MacDonald was reviewed by... Kevin MacDonald?

Maybe not, but the syntax and punctuation in the attribution above is a bit off.  No?

The sneaky fuckers actually believe that if they broadcast their agenda, even in couched and deliberately deceptive terms, that they are absolved in the eyes of G-d.

I disagree.  Sue me.

BarkingCat's picture

The BBC is actively participating in an all out effort to collapse Western Civilization.

Infnordz's picture

They (much like "They Live") want more r-Type countries because more r-Type countries are less loyal to the in-group, so more tolerant of their parasitic kind, so have been playing a long game to weaken/hijack the countries they want to live in and abuse e.g. the UK and other countries were infiltrated to overly punish Germany after WW1, which caused Nazi germany due to K-type pressures, and to enable the creation of the fake country Israel.

The book "The Evolutionary Psychology Behind Politics" provides lots of details on what r-types and K-types are and how human r-types can cause far worse disasters by using progressive reality denial strategies like pillage and (unpayable usury) debt; the anon. author discusses how a surplus of resources from K-type Roman success caused the rise to power of r-types, thus eventual degeneracy and mismanagement, and then finite pillage and other futile attempts to prop up the r-type favoured plenty of a doomed empire.

To put it bluntly, if we want to have a stable civilisation with less pointlessly destructive K-type <-> r-type economic cycles, K-types (and smarter r-types) must treat unproductive or subversive r-types in r-type terms, as disposable, and in K-type terms as out-group, and taper off free resources (including for children) to them until they flip back to K-type mode or die off; as for the decadent and subversive r-type rich, they must be made poor or eliminated, because they probably won't get the message while still rich!  Obviously all (Jewish) Cultural Marxism, including political correctness, must be classified as terrorist material and people educated why!

Bigly's picture

Who watches BBC, aka BUTT BOY CENTRAL

booboo's picture

And why is there only one possible outcome from a "changing climate" and what makes anyone think that throwing baskets of money stolen from the people into a volcano will appease the gods of all that is carbon.