"Both Cannot Be Right" - The Yield Curve's Ominous Message: Something Is Very Broken

Tyler Durden's picture

Two weeks ago, Deutsche Bank's credit analyst Aleksandar Kocic explained that with the yield curve becoming increasingly flatter, the Fed has roughly two more rate hikes left before it loses control as the curve first flattens completely and eventually inverts, a precursor to virtually every historical recession. As the DB strategist explained, given where long rates are the "Fed appears overly hawkish – it has only two more hikes to go and, for volatility and risk premia to reprice higher, the gap has to widen. As it appears unlikely that the Fed will be cutting rates any time soon, the gap could widen only if the Long rates sell off."

The problem - as observed here virtually every day for the past year - is that long rates have refused to sell off, and while they did move modestly higher last week in the US, other developed nations have seen even more flattening to compensate for the move in the US.

Fast forward to this weekend when Macquarie analyst Viktor Shvets picks up where Kocic left off, and points out that investors’ expectation of tax cuts and potentially deeper regulatory changes, combined with evidence that global reflationary cycle remains robust, have firmed Fed’s tightening expectations and moved US 10Y yields above its recent 2.2%-2.4% range. However, there was no corresponding move in either Bunds (down 10 bps to 0.4%) or JGBs, thus widening real yield differential against Bunds to ~150bps (vs. 125bps in Aug’17 and 100bps in Oct’16) and against JGB’s to ~65 bps (vs. ~50bps two months ago). "Not surprisingly, this led to at least partial reversion of recent DXY depreciation."

The bigger problem is that despite some notable rates moves last week, these have been confined to the front end, which means that even as probability of the Fed’s tightening increased and the short end of the curve responded, the long end has not moved much, and hence the US yield curves continued to flatten.

Currently, the 2s10s is trading at 82bps (since ’08 it has almost never been below 80bps), compared to ~90-95 bps in Jul ’17 and 130bps in Dec ’16. The further out on the curve that one goes, the greater the flattening, with the 2s30s now at 133bps vs over 200bps in Dec ’16. There were also no material change in the inflationary break-even rates or expectations.

Here's why this is a big problem. As Shvets lays it out for the nth time, in a conventionally recovering economy, tightening by CBs should move the entire curve up, indicating strengthening confidence and rising expectations. However, it is clear that while the short-end is responding to growing probability of tightening, the long end is assuming that rising rates instead of stimulating growth and confidence, would increase the chances of much more disinflationary outcomes further down the road. In fact, the more the Fed has tightened, the more the curve has flattened.

From a practical standpoint this means that while the short end is assuming that mixture of rate rises and liquidity withdrawal would result in higher cost of capital, the intermediate and long end of the curve assume that neither supply nor demand for capital can withstand higher cost of capital. And as we, Deutsche Bank, Bank of America and many others have pounded the table previously, and now so does Macquarie, "Both cannot be right. Flattening yield curves imply less liquidity and higher probability that consumption and investment would fall and savings rise."

Adding to the confusion, the curve has flattened even as financial conditions remain abundantly, generously loose. An emerging paradox here is that even though CBs have signaled that over the next 12 months liquidity flows
would fall by more than 50% (vs US$2 trillion injected this year) and liquidity might turn negative by the start of 2019 as BofA once again warned last week...


... financial stress indicators remain at the easiest ever levels. This is true whether we look at St Louis Financial Stress Index...

... high yield, TED or OIS spreads. This validates, at least superficially, what Shvets claimed before, namely that "we are living in a world without risks".

The declining risks amidst rising cost of money and potentially falling liquidity is only possible if private sector productivity is improving. Unfortunately, we do not see evidence to support it.

So what does all of the above mean? Well, as Kocic warned two weeks ago, and as Shvets explained now, unless the entire curve starts shifting up, it appears that we are still in a world where CBs cannot tighten or withdraw liquidity. This in turn leads to another circular problem: the longer the Fed avoids the moment of reintroducing risks, the greater the eventual crash will be, i.e. the Fed's "nightmare scenario." Or, as Shvetz puts it:

"There is of course a policy concern that persistence of low volatilities and high valuations are raising financial stability risks. While these concerns are legitimate, we can’t see how price discoveries or volatilities can be re-introduced, without a risk of significant asset value contractions that would bring forward economic volatilities that CBs are trying to avoid." 

In other words, for all the talk and posturing of tighter conditions and future rate hikes, Shvets believes that "central banks remain slaves of the system, and a pleasant Kondratieff autumn is likely to endure." The alternative is the Fed losing control - something which is not allowed to happen, and is why stocks continue to hit all time highs - ushering in the very unpleasant "Kondratieff winter."

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ThirdWorldNut's picture

Broken is not new, question is when is it going to mean revert? Has been a widow trade for last 5+ years.

JRobby's picture

They done broke it.

Back in 2012. Total disconnect from any economic data trends.  The data is falsified, so really, WTF ???

Under ordinary circumstances ( left town 5 years ago), the correction should be breathtaking. But it will continue.

Zombie like Japan as the Fed and ECB buy more bonds and equities without a "formal" purchase plan in place.


johngaltfla's picture

If anyone says today's data is true while saying 2012's or 2014's data was bullshit is a complete and total hypocrite.

The real US GNP using my back of the napkin calculations is no more than 1.2% since 2007 and in reality is probably flatlining again since late 2015.

The truth is the U.S. is going Nippon Express with our bullshit calculations and lies on data and that means we are well on our way into a recession of mofo proportions which will require a 'war' to cure. And the cure will be far worse than the prospective economic depression.

el buitre's picture

Yeah?  What did you use as the average deflator over that span?  Realistically would be about 7% meaning full depression mode despite artificially inflated stock market.  Bernanke and Yellen stuck a straw up its ass and just kept blowing.

TeamDepends's picture

Doctor: This won't hurt a bit! (jabs Chauncey with needle)
Chauncey: It did hurt.

HRH Feant2's picture


Dammit call the popo they need to hear about this shit!

Winston Churchill's picture

Doctor: I didn't feel a thing.

Don't assume,it will hurt.

curbjob's picture

Ah the complexities of moral hazard ...

when the Fed raises the front end, there will be little movement on the long end because everyone knows; the expected stock market sell off as a result of tightening ,  will immediately be met once again by an aggressive loosening policy.



aside; the Vapors predicted this in 1980


JRobby's picture

Zombie economy trapped in a permanent liquidity trap waiting for "some big event". The longer it goes on for, the bigger the event needs to be. It's been going on for quite some time now......





Dragon HAwk's picture

Money is Free, Everybody can have some, Some can just have More than Others.

attila404's picture

Something's been broken since the early '90s. Just stop it with this nonsense. Nobdoby cares. Understand?

Frozen's picture

This is just picking up shells before the tsunami. No one is convinced the long trade is worth anything

rf80412's picture

No one is convinced the long trade is worth anything

In the long run, we're all dead.  And what's the point of being worth millions when you're old, weak, and ugly?

GooseShtepping Moron's picture

Leaving an inheritance to your descendants, thus allowing them the possibility to do more in life other than slave away and pay bills.They may not have the talent to do something noteworthy with their opportunities, but they won't even have the chance if the don't have the means.

Inter-generational wealth transfer is the only reliable way of climbing out of the ruck of mediocrity and living on the heights of history.

TheSilentMajority's picture

The REAL fed funds rate is actually NEGATIVE 6%-11%.

Rational honest parties would acknowledge that the the true CPI rate that has been running at an annualized pace of between 7%- 12% for the last 20+ years.

JRobby's picture

All the data has been falsified for years. Between health insurance and a 12oz bag of Dunkin' Doughnuts coffee going from $6.45 to $7.66 in 6 months, we got inflation Janet! Get the fuck out of there sooner.

buttmusk's picture

2s5s would be a better comp for z7z8. Jus sayin.....

RationalExuberance's picture

ha, z7z8 is like 1s2s... Not to mention that these three have different scales on the graph, one of which is half the other two (guess which one). 


1. Buy gold

2. Short TSLA

3. Putin did nothing wrong

Solio's picture

The Wigner Effect?

GreatUncle's picture

2 more rate hikes and the next move the FED will punch the NIRP button next time not ZIRP.

In a system of deflationary debt = NIRP style debt because applying a negative rate to the debt would shrink it in relative terms.

The economic mechanism they are using is NIRP just we never noticed with the inflationary pump.

Dewey Cheatum and Howe's picture

Get used to it. Absent real volatility, they must create spreads[it's all they have left], and they will.

Rigged to the fucking max.

razorthin's picture

"Tightening" and "tapering", my ass.  Why wouldn't they lie about that too?

Youri Carma's picture


The Federal Reserve balance sheet reduction that didn’t happen

Oops. Instead of reducing its balance sheet (unwinding quantitative easing) by $10 billion this month, The Federal Reserve actually increased it by $10 billion! Yikes! Did they find they needed to start QE back up as soon as they unwound $o.001 trillion?

bluskyes's picture

Time would be better spent analyzing why the first guy is the only one who wins 3 card monte

katagorikal's picture

Rising long term rates can be either:
   1. Good, from realistic growth expectations.
   2. Bad, from liquidity shortage, higher govt deficits and QT.

The Fed can raise the long end with QT whenever they want to.
They can use (2) to fake the impression of (1) growth expectations,
in a forlorn hope to stimulate actual growth,
but at the risk of triggering a massive recession.

'So do you feel lucky, punk, well, do ya?'

Madcow's picture

If 1 BTC = $5000 USD


And 1BTC = 20BBL


And 1 BBL = $50 USD


Then … something is busted here too.


Either Bitcoin is overvalued by over 50%


Or USD price of oil is undervalued by over 200%


Bitcoin price in USD



USD Price of Oil



BTC Price of Oil