As Israel And Saudi Arabia Target Lebanon, What Are Hezbollah's Military Capabilities

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As we explained in part I, On The Verge Of Catastrophe: Saudi Arabia Says Lebanon Declared War, the anti-Iran and anti-Shia alliance of convenience between the Saudis and Israelis appears to have placed Lebanon in the cross hairs of yet another looming Israeli-Hezbollah war. This will begin as economic war, but could soon become actual war. This comes, perhaps not coincidentally, at the very moment ISIS is on the verge of complete annihilation (partly at the hands of Hezbollah), and as both Israel and Saudi Arabia have of late increasingly declared "red lines" concerning perceived Iranian influence across the region as well as broad Hezbollah acceptance and popularity within Lebanon. 

What has both Israel and the Saudis worried is the fact that the Syrian war has possibly strengthened Hezbollah, not weakened it - and this as Lebanese Prime Minister Saad Hariri was summoned home by his Saudi paymasters, precipitating last weekend's internal Saudi regime crackdown and ensuing chaos. Indeed as we reported, there is also now smoking gun internal evidence that Israel is quietly formalizing its unusual alliance with Saudi Arabia toward the goal of extinguishing Hezbollah from Lebanon and the region. But what is Hezbollah's current military strength and how difficult would it be for external attackers to extricate the group from Lebanese government and society? 

Below is an extensive and rare in-depth analysis of Hezbollah's current military capabilities and role in Lebanese society courtesy of analysts at SouthFront. The full report can be viewed here.


Image source: John Grummitt/Shutterstock.com

An Assessment Of Hezbollah's Military Capabilities And Its Role In Lebanese Society 

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In the next war Israel will face a unified front of Syrian forces, Hezbollah and the Lebanese Army, Israeli Defense Minister Avigdor Lieberman said last month.

Lieberman made this claim during a celebratory event marking the Jewish festival of Sukkot at a military headquarters building in Tel Aviv. The minister added that the “Lebanese army has lost its independence and has become an integral part of Hezbollah’s network.”

“Even if the next campaign develops, and it does not matter where it develops, in the north or the south, it will immediately become a battle on two fronts,” Lieberman said. “We are supposed to prepare for every possible scenario, and the new reality also prepares new challenges for us. If we once talked about the Lebanese sector, then there is no longer such a sector, there is a northern sector in every development.”

The defense minister further warned, “Whoever wants peace must prepare for war, and I hope that our enemies on the other side will think carefully about every step taken against the State of Israel, so that we will not have to demonstrate the full strength and capabilities of the IDF [Israeli Defense Forces].”

Hezbollah's Ideology and Relation to the Lebanese Government

Hezbollah’s mission and foundation can be summarized according to three principles: first, Islam is declared an ideological, doctrinal, and practical basis for the organization’s functions; second, its main aim is the struggle against Israeli occupation of Lebanon and Palestine and against Zionist domination; third, it recognizes the Iranian Shia thesis concerning the necessity of 'Vilayat-e-Fakih'. This Shia doctrine asserts that during the era of the "12th Great Reappearance of Imam Muhammad al-Mahdi," the leadership over the Shia is transferred to high-ranking Shia clerics.


Hassan Nasrallah

Hezbollah, as an organization, has a structure based on certain ideological principles and exists within the framework of the Lebanese state, but which has no actual influence on the movement’s activities. The party is led by the Shura Council consisting of 7 members (six spiritual leaders—ulemas—and one secular leader). The members are elected by the Central Council (Al-Majlis al-Markazis), consisting of the 200 most authoritative members of the movement. Shura Council elections consist of three phases. The first is the candidate selection (usually 70-80), both clerics and secular individuals who satisfy the criteria set by the top leaders. Those who pass this stage have the right to participate in the second stage. In other words, they become candidates for the Shura Council. As a rule, 10-15 people make it to the second round. The final phase consists of the direct election of the 7 Shura Council members.


A political map of Lebanon

Council decisions are final and religiously binding for all party members. They are adopted either unanimously or by the majority of votes. If there is a deadlock or a split within Shura Council, issues are decided by the party leader, whose decisions are final and obligatory on all administrative institutions, and cannot be challenged. This is how the principle of Vilayat-e-Fakih is observed and splits within the ruling elite are averted.

The actual operations of the party are conducted by the administrative executive apparatus, known as Shura Tanfiz. It consists of five councils:

  • Executive Council (oversight over political and organizational matters, including social, cultural, and educational activities);
  • Politburo (addresses intra-movement matters);
  • Parliamentary Council (concerns itself with Hezbollah activities in the Lebanese legislature);
  • Judicial Council (issues religious resolutions and carries out arbitration on matters of disagreement, relying on Islamic law); and
  • Jihad Council (directs the movement, including oversight, recruitment, training, equipment, security).

Each council is usually headed by a Shura Council member. The movement General Secretary is Hassan Nasrallah, who is also the supreme commander of its armed formations. Leadership also includes his deputy, a spiritual leader who is also the supreme judge, some Lebanese legislators, the military formation commander for Southern Lebanon, and regional leaders of the organization. The Executive Council has various departments responsible for specific areas of activity: welfare, healthcare, information, press, finance, external communications, coordination.

Hezbollah's Military Capabilities

Assessments of Hezbollah’s armed strength vary. Iran’s FARS news agency data from October 2016 put Hezbollah’s armed strength at no less than 65,000 troops, including reserves. Of them, 21,000 are professional soldiers with constant training. According to the 2017 Military Balance, currently 5-8 thousand Hezbollah troops are fighting in Syria.

  • Bekaa Valley:  the regional commander’s responsibilities include control over arms shipments from Iran through Syria for the “Sheikh Abdallah” military camp that’s under joint command by the Hezbollah and the Syrian army. According to various sources, this region’s forces consist of at least 7 infantry battalions with 252 people each. Three of them are motorized.
  • South Beirut: according to various sources, this region includes at least two battalions of 252 troops, one of them motorized.
  • South Lebanon: after the Taif treaty of 1989, Hezbollah formations were reorganized and placed under a unified command. The current commander is responsible for Hezbollah military and Special Security formations and may also command Lebanese Army units in South Lebanon. This region includes at least 7 battalions of 252 troops each, five of them motorized.

Moreover, one should note the nontrivial fact of the existence of a full-scale, by Iranian, NATO, and Russian measures, tank regiment. In November 2016, near the city of al-Quiseir (Homs province, Syria), there was an inspection of Hezbollah equipment. The various photos from the inspection showed T-55, T-62, and some T-72 tanks, some 2S1 Gvozdika howitzers, BMP-1, and -2, M113 APCs with 14.5mm machine-guns, ZSU-57-2 SPAA. Most of this equipment apparently came from SAA arsenals and was obtained from the Lebanese Army and possibly Iran.


Hezbollah tanks photographed in Syria in November 2016. Image source: South Front

Being a full-fledged political and military organization, Hezbollah understands that it is surrounded by enemies such as Israel and radical Sunni Islamists. Therefore having a tank regiment with experienced crews is of vital importance, as the unit represents a serious force by the standards of Lebanon and the adjacent countries. The prolonged civil war in Lebanon, the permanent stand-off with Israel, and now also the struggle against Sunni Islamists - in other words, the constant balancing on the edge between war and peace - makes the movement flexible in its command arrangements and able to quickly and appropriately react to emerging problems.

One can also draw the conclusion that the paramilitary wing of the Hezbollah, in spite of external attributes of a partisan movement, which it was 20-30 years ago, is gradually becoming a full-fledged army with a training establishment, a command structure, and a logistical segment.

Each Hezbollah brigade in south Lebanon has a sector in northern Israel that it is supposed to occupy. Combat and special training in each brigade take into account local geography. One should also note that border terrain is fortified: there is a large-scale network of tunnels, bunkers, minefields. Using the tunnels, Hezbollah can concentrate large number of troops on the needed attack sector without being spotted and attacked from the air.

Experience Gained in Syria

Hezbollah leadership reviewed its concept of operations after the start of the Syria war. Before the war, the emphasis was placed on defensive ops in built-up areas with small units to inflict maximum troop and equipment losses on the IDF while simultaneously shelling Israel using large numbers of short- and medium-range rockets.

In Syria, Hezbollah realized that it had to wage offensive ops in cities. Therefore it reconsidered its training system, increased its rocket arsenal, and provided more heavy weapons and recon systems.

The first operation where Hezbollah took offensive using large units was the battle for el-Quseyr in May-June 2013. Some 1200-1700 best-trained Hezbollah troops took part in the battle. They were divided into 17 detachments, with later division into teams of 3-5 troops. Prior to the attack, the command performed recon of the city and its approaches, then divided the city into 16 sectors, one for each detachment. Each region had its codename. During the battle, this allowed for command of forces using open channels of communication without the enemy being able to take any countermeasures. Hezbollah command undertook the direction of SAA tank and artillery units near the city.

Considering that the city was in the Islamist hands for over a year and was well-fortified, the ratio of losses was nevertheless 5:1 in favor of Hezbollah. The battle showed that with proper organization, a fortified city can be effectively attacked by a small force.

As far as the military direction of Hezbollah units in Syria by Iran is concerned, it seems probable that Iran directs Hezbollah units down to battalion level (sometimes down to company) using IRGC specialists from the al-Quds Force. It can’t be ruled out that IRGC specialists coordinate Hezbollah and local self-defense forces like the Kataib Hezbollah and Asaib Ahl al-Haq. Units smaller than a battalion don’t warrant the provision of specialists. There is a need for a large number of trained cadres able to command and provide assistance. One of the factors influencing cooperation in this instance is the language barrier—Arabic in Lebanon, versus Farsi in Iran.

Hezbollah became one of the factors which allowed to turn around the war in Syria, since its troops were able to fight in cities. The SAA, in 2011-12 was organized along 1970-80 lines to fight combined arms battles mainly against Israel. New realities have shown that this army was unable to fight as small units in the cities. Moreover, the SAA has not fought for a long time. Its last significant operations took place in 1982. Therefore it had no commanders with urban warfare experience. Hezbollah, on the other hand, has constantly fought Israel since the moment of its creation. Generations of commanders have honed their skills in the years of clashes and battles with the IDF, causing it serious losses during the 2006 war. Israel was forced to retreat from south Lebanon, and Hezbollah’s reputation has risen to unprecedented heights.

Israel’s military command is worried about Hezbollah’s operations in Syria, since its paramilitary wing will now be able to wage offensive ops using heavy weapons and a huge number of short-, medium-, and long-range rockets.

The fact that Hezbollah has become akin to a regular army is confirmed by IDF’s rethinking of its approach to the fight against it. First, IDF is preparing for fighting big formations, up to a brigade, whose task will be invading Israel and capturing villages or military bases. Second, it is paying special attention to combating tunnels, including technical and psychological preparation of its troops to fight in tunnels.

Hezbollah's Rocket Arsenal 

The movement’s distinguishing characteristic is the enormous rocket arsenal which, by various estimates, contains between 50 thousand and 120 thousand rockets. And not merely an arsenal, but a whole system, from rocket part and fuel factories to storage facilities and camouflaged launch sites.

The existing land-based arsenal is reflected by the following table:


* –depending on the specific variant; MRL – multiple rocket launcher missile; SSM – surface-to-surface missile; SRBM – short-range ballistic missile. Table source: South Front

To assess Hezbollah’s effectiveness, it is important to look back at its shelling of Israel in 2005. At the start, according to Nassrallah, there were over 12 thousand rockets. Official Israeli police reports noted 3770 rocket strikes on the country, including 901 strikes in the cities. Thanks to civil defense, only 44 were killed and 1384 were wounded. One is also tempted to note that Hezbollah mostly used rockets with ranges under 100km and small warheads, as no SRBM strikes were noted. This was due the small number of SRBMs and Israeli effort to destroy them, which was partly successful. Hits by 600-980kg SRBM warheads would have had catastrophic consequences on cities. The presence of SSMs proved a surprise for Israel. On July 14, 2006, the Israeli corvette ship Hanit was hit by a Chinese-made C-802 SSM launched from the shore. The ship’s air defense was turned off since nobody expected an SSM attack. 4 sailors were killed and the corvette was incapacitated for 3 weeks. The 165kg warhead most likely failed to explode, otherwise, the corvette would have sunk.

Having a large rocket arsenal made in Iran, PRC, and Syria, raises the question of whether Hezbollah has its own factories of rockets. If it does, they manufacture certain numbers. It’s been a long time since the last war with Israel. Launching a rocket after lengthy storage could be dangerous to its launch crew. It would seem that the war in Syria is being used to use up old Russian and Chinese rockets of which it has large numbers. The situation is more complex with SRBMs. They are very expensive to make. It would make no sense to establish their production on territory which at any moment could be bombed by Israel. With proper servicing, such rockets can be stored for up to decades. It’s likely that some assistance here is provided by Iranian civil and military specialists.

Building a rocket plant on the territory of another country is a whole different matter. In August 2017, Israeli media reported that Iranians are building a ballistic missile plant in north-west Syria. It is built near the coastal city of Banias, tens of kilometers from Tartus where the Russian base is located, and south of Hmeimim where Russian aircraft are based, protected by S-300 and S-400. Therefore the factory can be protected against Israeli strikes. According to experts, the plant will produce Fateh-110 rockets for the SAA and, possibly, Hezbollah.

The rocket arsenal has been modernized and expanded. At the start of the next war, Hezbollah will be able to launch 1500 rockets a day, instead of 200 in 2006, covering the whole territory of Israel and not only the border regions. There are reports that Hezbollah has Russian Yakhont surface-to-surface missiles obtained from Syria, instead of the unreliable C-802.

Therefore the Hezbollah rocket arsenal is not a network of warehouses full of artisanal rockets, dangerous to the crews operating them. It’s a whole range of industrially produced weapons capable of destroying land and naval targets at various ranges.

All of the above does not mean Hezbollah seeks war with Israel, whose leadership is fully aware that if there is another war in south Lebanon, Israel’s civilians would unprecedented threats.

Intelligence and Counter-Intelligence

Hezbollah’s Special Security department is responsible for both intel and counter-intel, and implements several missions, one of the most important being professionally carried out operations abroad at the behest of Shura Council. Imad Fayez Mughniyeh was a head of Special Security department until 2008 when he died in a car bomb blast in Kafr Sousa neighborhood of the Syrian capital, Damascus.

Responsibilities of the department’s head in Shura Council include overseeing the following departments:

  • National preventive security apparatus, which provides personal security to high-level spiritual leaders.
  • Internal security and intelligence apparatus, which tracks political and religious reliability of the Hezbollah members.
  • National central security apparatus, which observes, tracks, infiltrates, and if necessary eliminates military or political individuals or groups seeking to interfere with Hezbollah in Lebanon.
  • Foreign combat cells and intel apparatus. This department partly overlaps with the central security council, depending on types of requests received by cell leaders.

Imad Mugniyeh is the individual who made this department one of the most powerful secret services in the world. He was born in 1962 in the Tayr Debba village in south Lebanon. He started his career in the mid-1970s in the FATH organization. In 1977-82 he was a member of its intelligence and special units (Force 17, Unified Security Directorate, etc.). After an advanced course under IRGC instructors at the Imam Ali base in Bekaa province, he headed the personal security team for Hezbollah leader Muhammad Husein Fadlallah who was killed on February 12, 2008 by a car bomb in a Damascus suburb.

Before 2005, Hezbollah was to a large extent integrated into Lebanese intel services, including Amn al-Amn Main Directorate for Common Security which expanded its ability to carry out intelligence and counter-intelligence ops. After Hezbollah was accused of being complicit in the death of former Lebanese PM, Rafik Hariri in February 2005, Hezbollah members were forced to leave Lebanese secret services, which affects the movement’s intel work.

The Special Security department studies Iranian and Israeli experience. According to Israeli intel members, Hezbollah has a large agent network in the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) and AMAN military intelligence. This opinion is supported by the presence of limited access Israeli Ministry of Defense maps, manuals, and documents on captured Hezbollah members.

The movement’s intel successes are largely based on exploiting familial and criminal ties between Israeli and Lebanese Arabs, and the well-oiled cooperation between Hezbollah intel and Palestinian Authority armed formations. Moreover, Hezbollah intelligence often uses interrogations of captured officers and soldiers, and data obtained through recruitment of senior Israeli officers. For example, Hezbollah was able to recruit IDF Lt. Col. Omar el-Haiba, a Bedouin. This officer occupied a high post in the Western district HQ. He was one of the most capable Bedouin officers in the IDF. After a serious wound, he was disabled but nevertheless returned to the IDF and earned awards for his agitation among the Bedouins. This officer was arrested on suspicion of giving Hezbollah secret information on IDF forces on Lebanon border and the schedule of patrols. On June 18, 2006 a court martial sentenced him to 15 years in prison for espionage, contact with enemy agents, and drug trade.

Due to the secrecy regime in Special Security Apparatus, little is known about foreign terrorist and intel cells. As a rule, they become known only after major events. Hezbollah selects people for special ops from among its own special units. These people are believed to be well trained and prepared to die for the sake of the mission. Some of them are from Arab and Islamic organizations that have ceased to exist. All of Hezbollah’s special ops are handled by Special Security apparatus, with support from Iranian and Syrian intel and special ops forces, and from the IRGC.

Members of the overseas cells are thoroughly trained. They have knowledge and information about the country where they work. They speak the language of the country. This attracts less attention from civil and military authorities. Infiltration unit equipment includes Israeli or other military uniforms, depending on the mission. Units infiltrating Israel speak Hebrew, use Israeli weapons and equipment as camouflage, and are familiar with all types of weapons used in the region. Members of special infiltration units and members of the suicide units differ, among other things, by their uniforms. For example, Jihad Detachments wear green or black clothing, carry Semtex, C-4, or C-9 charges, and usually wear masks on operations.

The following Jihad Detachments are known:

  • Islambula Brigade: assassination of political activists.
  • Al-Quds Brigade: two units of suicide bombers consisting of 56 each, the Fathi Shkaki Company and the Ihye Ayasha Company.

On Imad Mugniye’s initiative, in the early ‘90s a special unit of Hebrew-speaking Lebanese Palestinians was formed. It had the task of eavesdropping on IDF army frequencies. Later, SSA sought to improve their language and professional skills at the Center of Islamic Science and Culture and its branches in Iran, Cyria, and Lebanon.

One should note that the Hezbollah units and controlled territories are targets of Israeli human intelligence efforts. Israeli Border Police (MAGAV) includes the YAMAS unit which camouflages its members to look like Arabs. During the 2006 war, Hezbollah counterintelligence located and destroyed an Israeli agent network in south Lebanon and Beirut. The network conducted espionage in Hezbollah HQ and transmitted this data to the IDF. Agents from among local population set up equipment to monitor Hezbollah military installations and used GPS devices to guide munitions, spread glow-in-the-dark powder around buildings and command centers, rocket warehouses and launch sites. Still, IDF and Israeli intel was not able to kill or capture a single senior Hezbollah official or destroy the command system, since the shelling of Israel continued no matter what.

The Media: Agitation and Propaganda

Hezbollah places particular importance on the media. It owns a satellite TV channel (al-Manar), four radio stations, and five newspapers. Without any doubt, Hezbollah’s image was to a large extent formed by al-Manar, which has been broadcasting since June 1991, and has gone satellite in 2000. It has become Hezbollah’s face to the world. The channel is unique, before its existence Arab media consisted of newspapers and radio stations. Experts believe its audience is second only to al-Jazeera. Al-Manar became the official channel of the movement, demonstrating accomplishments, particularly in the realm of fighting Israel. Its broadcasts consist mainly of news and political programs, broadcasts dedicated to the memory of martyrs, informational and entertainment shows. It is also unique in that it broadcasts in Hebrew for the Israeli population. While Western media depict the al-Manar as propaganda for a terror group, the channel does not broadcast any information on making bombs, executions of Israeli soldiers, blowing up of checkpoints, and other forms of cruelty.

Hezbollah radio stations al-Nour and al-Iman broadcast from southern Beirut. Al-Islam broadcasts in south Lebanon, and Sawt al-Mustad’afin broadcasts in the area of Bekaa river valley. There are also newspapers: Al-Bilad, al-Ahd, al-Muntalaq, al-Sabil, and Baquitou Allah.

The movement has a website, www.moqawama.org. Its content includes the most important news from Lebanon and the world, video addresses by movement leader, respecting the memory of martyrs, opinion polls, and memorable dates in the movement’s history. Agitation video broadcast by TV and web channels are of high artistic and directorial quality and take into consideration the preference of the audience and Arab mentality not only in Lebanon but the world.

Social Work

Even though the Hezbollah is known in Western media as a terror organization, it seeks to defy that label by the multifaceted aspect of its activities. Apart from fighting in Syria and against Israel, it is part of Lebanon’s legislature, and provides education and medical services to the Lebanese. In 2000-2010 Hezbollah spent several billion dollars on humanitarian efforts in Lebanon. The organization builds kindergartens and schools, hospitals and clinics, and even supermarkets. Its fighters and their family members can take advantage of many services with major discounts. Education in Hezbollah-built schools is cheaper than in public schools. The poor obtain stipends. Of course, the education focuses on the Arabic language, Islam, and Shia traditions. But English language and physical sciences are also taught. These schools provide a very high level of instruction by ME standards.

The media also focuses on those who fell for the freedom and independence of Lebanon. As a sign of respect for the martyrs, which is how Shia community views them, the funerals are attended by senior officials. They also participate in any funerals of people who perished in battle or in other circumstances. This is apparently due to Hasan Nasrallah’s having suffered a personal loss. His eldest son Hadi became a martyr in April 2000 during fighting in south Lebanon.

If the killed fighter had children, they are taken under care, receive education or jobs. In spite of financial problems, providing money for cadre soldiers and for the families of the dead is the top priority.

  • Mu’assasat Jihad al-Bina’ or the Fund for Sacred Struggle was founded by the Hezbollah in 1988. It quickly became one of the most visible NGOs in Lebanon. Although it is autonomous, its activities fall under the purview of the social services department of the movement. Its main aim is to “lessen the burdens faced by the poor families by relying on God’s aid in fulfilling their moral and Islamic obligations.” The Fund operates in southern districts of Beirut, Bekaa Valley, and south Lebanon. The fund provides more than half of population of those regions with water, helps farmers with procuring livestock, fertilizers, fuel. It carries out electrification of the most backward villages.
  • Mu’assasat al-Shahid, or the Martyrs’ Fund, supports the children of killed or captured fighters and civilians. It provides housing, jobs, and support for widows and runs a job placement office for the youth.
  • Lujnat Imdad al-Khomeini, or the Khomeini Support Committee, was formed right after Israeli aggression of 1982. It helps poor families, particularly those which suffered from Israeli occupation. The aid includes monthly benefits, food parcels, basic necessities, clothing, health services, and education. The committee provides medical assistance, including through medications, diagnoses, surgeries, and rehabilitation, to tens of thousands of patients a year. The financial and technical incapacity of the Lebanese government, particularly the Ministry of Health, forced the movement to take under the control of the Islamic Health Unit the hospitals of south Lebanon.

Hezbollah education department is headed by an office titled al-Ta‘bia’ al-Tarbawiyya, or the Education Directorate. It provides financial aid to needy Hezbollah members. Its expenditures are extremely important to the movement, because public schools suffer from lack of funds for construction and education technology.

The education department also provides needy students higher education in applied sciences, and religious studies in various institutions such as Technical Institute of the Great Prophet, the Technical Institutes of Sayyid Abbas al-Musawi, the Institute of Sayydat al-Zahra’, the Institute of Shaykh Raghib Harb, and the Islamic Shari’ah Institute.

Other types of aid include paying for textbooks and school materials, and part of the tuition in public and private schools.

Economic and Financial Activities

A variety of sources of funding—donations, business, and Iran’s support—ensure the party’s independence and economic stability. Its assets are held in the Saderat Bank of Iran or in other banks in accounts of front individuals, to prevent the US and the West from freezing its assets. The party is a huge corporation whose assets belong to the whole party, not just specific individuals.

The main sources of funding are:

  • Direct subsidies from Iran, no more than $100 million per year, though $200 million before the fall of oil prices.
  • Contributions by Shia community in and outside of Lebanon
  • Profits from economic and banking activity.

Income from smuggling, illegal sale of weapons and drugs, are not taken into consideration in this context.

According to Pew Research Center and the World Factbook (CIA), here is the approximate number of Shia in countries where they represent a high percentage of Muslims:


Total: approx. 200 million worldwide.

One should keep in mind that Pew data have often been criticized by Western experts and Shia diasporas for underestimating Shia numbers.

According to World Labor Organization, average salaries in these countries in 2016 were:


The Islamic concept of Zakat states that when it comes to deeds performed in God’s name, including supporting warriors waging jihad, the poor, or people propagating Islam, the average worker should contribute 2.5% of their salary.

Considering the multi-child families which are the rule in Muslim countries (one does not consider non-working wives and children), zakat may be paid by up to 10% of the community.

In this case, contributions by country look as follows:

From this sum, the Shia diaspora may contribute no more than 1/5, or 120 million USD, for financing Hezbollah.

This calculation does not include income tax, since each country has a different tax law. One should also keep in mind that not all Shia in the West and Persian Gulf are supportive of Hezbollah’s military aid to Syria. For example, NGO surveys of Shia in the Persian Gulf states in the second half of 2013 suggests that the percentage of supporters fell to 30-50%. This is apparently due to the Hezbollah being given an image of the aggressor by the media of these countries, which can’t help but influence financing. After IS was proclaimed in 2014, India’s Shia issued a statement proclaiming readiness to send 30,000 volunteers to Iraq to fight radical Islam. There is no information concerning the Shia of India or neighboring countries providing aid for Syria.

More than 100,000 Lebanese have permanent residence in African countries, including 60,000 in Cote d’Ivoire, 25,000 each in Senegal and Sierra Leone, 16,000 in Nigeria, 6,000 in DRC, 5,000 each in Gabon and Cameroun. The majority of Lebanese in Africa are not Christians but Shia. They have concentrated control of much profitable business, which allows them not only live well but support their historical motherland. In 2008 alone, money transfers from African Lebanese exceeded $1 billion. It is difficult to assess Lebanese Shia affluence in Africa due to the never-ending financial crisis. Since it is Hezbollah that runs active social programs in Lebanon, one can assume the majority of remittances ends up on the organization’s accounts.

Overall, the movement collects no more than $500 million a year. It’s not much, considering it is waging a war in Syria and is financing the social sector of the whole country.

Why Hezbollah Became a Middle East Powerhouse and Its Transition to a Quasi-state

After the IDF withdrawal from most of Lebanon in 1985, Hezbollah with active support from the IRGC began to create its own weapons arsenals, and the January 1989 Damascus-Tehran agreement allowed Hezbollah to restore its military infrastructure and resume operations in south Lebanon. Thus by 1991 Hezbollah became the leading Lebanese resistance force, operating in the country’s south against the IDF

Starting in early ‘90s, Hezbollah began a transition away from being a purely paramilitary formation. In the summer of ’92, Iran’s leaders recommended Hezbollah transform itself from an openly extremist organization into an active Lebanese political force. Hezbollah reached an internal compromise between the “moderates” and “radicals”, established a ceasefire with Amal, and began active preparation for parliamentary elections. Hezbollah today acts as the leading political force in Lebanon and as a major Shia social and humanitarian organization (Lebanon has an estimated 2.5 million Shia out of 6.2 million total population). IDF withdraw from south Lebanon in 2006 was a huge victory in the eyes of the Arab world. Hezbollah has truly become a significant regional factor. Growing its influence in Lebanon and Syria and the region with Iran’s help, Hezbollah has become a base for recruitment, training, and preparation of volunteers for battling Israel and radical Sunni organizations. Hezbollah units often fight like regular army nits.

One of the reasons for the rise of Hezbollah’s regional influence is the strategic coordination between the Lebanese and Iraqi Shia, and also Syrian Alawites due to the continuous war in the Middle East. It’s important to note that the organization has proved its worth even in the darkest hours of Lebanon’s history, such as the many years of almost uninterrupted slaughter, but also during the perennial clashes with its external adversaries, even dangerous ones like Israel.

Opinions of Iran’s influence vary. Some experts claim Iran’s aid is so important that it fully affects all aspects of Hezbollah’s decision making process. Naturally, Iran’s authority as the leader of the Shia around the world is near-absolute. It also provides Hezbollah with tremendous military aid. Moreover, the movement has suffered losses in Syria, it’s most professional and best trained fighters have perished there, which weakens the organization. Therefore Hezbollah leaders have to show more flexibility and care in its dealings with Iran if differences of opinion arise.

The most likely explanation is that Hezbollah maintains considerable independence due to its exceptional political standing in the country, and of its nature as a strike force against Israel and Syria’s Sunni. Since the start of conflicts in Syria in 2011, Nasrallah tried to maintain neutrality. Hezbollah became involved only in 2013 when the situation grew out of control and there was a danger of combat spreading to Lebanon. Nasrallah stated in one of his announcements that” Iran should be viewed as the center of strategic influence in the region, as the model of a sovereign state which supports nations in their search for independence and as a force which helps countries and nations of the Middle East become stronger. Syria and Iran can’t force Hezbollah to act against its own plans. They can only argue with us and try to convince us.”

Since its independence, the Lebanese government paid little attention to the problems of the southern parts of the country. Therefore Hezbollah has assumed the role of helping the poor and developing infrastructure not for self-promotion, but because it was an objective necessity. Practically since birth, a Lebanese Shia is under Hezbollah’s care. Kindergartens, clinics, schools, and institutions—all of that has been built and is financed by the movement. So it’s no surprise that the movement is hugely popular and service within its ranks is considered honorable.

One should especially note that today Hezbollah is more than a movement. Even though it has not declared sovereignty over part of the country, it has every attribute of a state. It has legislative, executive, judicial authority, institutions for the collection and distribution of taxes, its own education system, a military, intelligence and counter-intelligence, media—all of that exists and functions within the movement’s framework. Moreover, it has control over its subjects, the totality of information about them and, most importantly, it relies on their good will to work with the movement in some form. The concept of citizenship is not after all defined by a passport but by the individual’s willingness to associate to a state or a movement and be loyal to it.

Here’s what is written about it by one of Hezbollah’s ideologues and the deputy general secretary, sheikh Naim Kassem: “From the theoretical point of view, we are calling for an Islamic state, we are drawing others into that process, since only an Islamic state may facilitate the maximum of human happiness. But on the practical level this question depends on free human choice, in addition to the Quran Ayat 2.257: There is no compulsion in religion. The correct way is quite separate from the false one. Whoever does not believe in idol worship but believes in God, has found a reliable foundation which cannot be crumbled. Verily, God is all-hearing and all-knowing.”

The victory of radical Sunni groups in Syria would mean the possibility of merciless annihilation of all other religious groups, following the Iraq scenario. After the US invasion of Iraq triggered a civil war and later the appearance of ISIS, which proved unspeakably cruel toward all other beliefs, it sent the message that in these conditions of ethnic and religious warfare, only paramilitary organizations like the Hezbollah can ensure their own survival.

Conclusions

Hezbollah’s popularity among Lebanese Shia is based on several factors: its military campaign against Israel, its wholly Lebanese nature, its role as a defender of the historically repressed Shia community, its religious nature and its wide range of social services.

Hezbollah has done more for the Shia community in Lebanon than the official government. Since the very start of its involvement in the war in Syria, the movement leaders that its fighters are defending Lebanon, Lebanese Shia, and Shia holy sites from the spread of extremist Sunni Islam, represented first and foremost by Jabhat al-Nusra and IS. According to Nasrallah, this was not a war of choice but of necessity.

Lebanese NGOs which carried out a survey in 2015 noted that 57% of respondents view the threat of radical Islam to Lebanon as real, and 80% view Hezbollah as making the life in Lebanon calmer. Lebanon today, just as the Middle East as a whole, is experiencing renewed inter-religious and inter-communal slaughter.  People living in unstable and unpredictable countries are trying to find protection and support among their own national or religious community. Therefore it is no surprise that Hezbollah enjoys such unconditional support among the Shia of Lebanon and Syria, even if they don’t fully support the movement’s aims and mission.

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343 Guilty Spark's picture

I personally go with real personal accounts that have no political affiliations.  Talking to British soldiers that were stationed in Israel, while I was still in the Air Force gave me a good idea of how Israel actually responds and handles situations. Israel has fucked up in hitting civilian targets when their intel says it is clear but they have made a concerted effort in past conflicts to avoid civilian areas even when they were not occupied by civilians because of conflicting intel.  I do not think Israel intentionally targets civilians and the evidence shows that Humas and other groups DO use civilians to shield themselves from retaliatory strikes and by doing so, are as much responsible for the civilian deaths as Israel is...if not more.

On the part about Hezbollah defending Christians.  I agree that was pretty awesome.  Shia muslims are much much much more tolerant towards other religious groups than Sunni muslims.  I think Israel needs to have a seperate stance on the different groups.  Hamas for example, does not adhere to international laws when it concerns civilians (both Palestinian and Israeli) in a conflict area, whereas Hezbollah has conformed to them much more than they used to.  Also Israel needs to back off on their hardline stance and go back to being moderate.  Sadly, that won't happen until Hamas and Hezbollah stop with the genocide talk.

That is the other thing that all of us need to really consider.  Israel hears all of this talk about genocide against Jews for years and are overly aggressive in trying to prevent it.  People need to cut that shit out. 

Genocide no matter who it is against is fucking wrong.

jeff montanye's picture

"I personally go with real personal accounts that have no political affiliations.  Talking to British soldiers that were stationed in Israel, while I was still in the Air Force gave me a good idea of how Israel actually responds and handles situations"

yes.  that sounds convincing.

WOWurstupid's picture

You and Jeff the nazi just hate Jews. You can't be told anything. Feel sorry for you. 

zvzzt's picture

Not sure about that Haus (just my two cents too, of course). IDF is excellent in destroying infrastructure and personel. Counter insurgency is a different story. Haven't shown any significant succes in the past, except versus the Palestinians, and even then with mixed resuts. It will be very, very costly for them and put an awefull lot of pressure on economics: small population, conscription and you need a lot of personel for pacification/counter insurgency. Time and economics aren't particularly in favour of Israel and the US, let alone KSA. 

Interesting times. 

Blue Vervain's picture

"...while Israel blows as many preschools and hospitals off the map as it can.  The video and reports alone would do more PR damage to Israel than Hezbollah as a fighting force could do. "

but.... the Holocaust!

BustedUpBiker's picture

So you believe all the phony stories that Israel indiscriminately blows up schools and hospitals, when even the UN has found troves of weapon stashed in mosques, schools and hospitals.

WOWurstupid's picture

Of course they do Biker, they are jeffy rense junior storm troopers, gotta hate somebody. 

Blue Vervain's picture

When you see this symbol surrounding text: " it indicates the content is being quoted.

RawPaleo's picture

Everyone needs a "holy-cause" as part of their tribal drive, helps improve loyalty and dedication.

BigWillyStyle887's picture

LoL thats what L.B.J. said about commies in vietnam too

Rusty Shorts's picture

Israel should just jump in their Merkava tanks and cruise over to Lebanon and see what Hezbollah's military capabilities are. Or better yet, just park a military ship just off shore hehehehee.

HowdyDoody's picture

That worked real well in 2006.

What has Israel got to lose? Any destroyed hardware will be replaced free of charge by the US taxpayer. It would be an ideal opportunity for them to get rid of some of the old gear.

Mustafa Kemal's picture

"Far from my knowledge or any expertise, "

But that doesnt stop you from flapping your gums

Arnold's picture

Yet, you have no defence, mustafa.

hestroy's picture

Imbecile like you should be destroyed.

Truther's picture

JUST FYI FROM ARABIC OUTLETS.

SAUDI ARABIA IS DEMANDING ALL CITIZENS LEAVE LEBANON IMMEDIATELY.

CANCEL ALL TRAVEL TO LEBANON FROM ANY DESTINATION OR DIRECTION.

I beleive this is a FIERY weekend.

knightowl77's picture

It is not "idiocy", it is an axiom of truth and as old as time itself....Learn from history - it may not repeat, but as Mark Twain said it does Rhyme

pynky01's picture

...from the Art of War...."during wartime prepare for peace...during peacetime prepare for war..."  ... the first casualty is truth... but in USA's case there has been a preemptive strike by the marxist jews who own the narrative ... GET READY FOR MORE GOYS TO DIE FOR THE MARXIST JEWS... prepare your sons and daughters to drop a knee to the marxist jews ... I know yall will do this without so much as a whimper ... remember(((they)))are the chosen and compared to them :  the difference between you and (((them))) is like the difference between you and insects... not my words but a marxist jew the name i cant recall..

WOWurstupid's picture

Hahahah I'll take your bet. What do you get for an allowance from Mom? If Israel goes to war the only thing that will happen is they get bigger. And saving Christians is not something hezzobaal has never done and never will. Lebanon was a Christian country before they got there. 

NiggaPleeze's picture

 

OK, I'll throw a few pearls to the pig:

Hezbollah Warns Against Attacking Christians in the Middle East

'They Accept Us as We Are;' Christians Join Forces With Hezbollah to Fight ISIS in Lebanon

It's the Sunni Muslims that displaced the Christians, oh, 1500 years ago.  You knowledge of history is as pathetic as your knowledge of the present, hasbara troll. 

One can only pray that the colonizers/invaders/savages/supremacists that worship Yahweh the Beast meet their deserved fate.

WOWurstupid's picture

1500 hundred years ago there was no islam dumbass

NiggaPleeze's picture

Proving again what a total know-nothing you are?

Mohammed started receiving his revelations from God, as Muslims believe, in 610.  Now it is 2017.

The Levant (incl. Syria, Lebanon, etc.) was taken over by Arab Muslims in the 7th Century, also about 1,400 years ago, with the battles starting before Islam but victory coming after.

So apologies for rounding off from 1,400 to 1,500, dumbass twit.

Lies All Lies's picture

Yeah right… Israel  was going to be destroyed in 1967 too -  how did that work out?  The only reason it took 6 days  to kick Arab ass was that they were running away so fast the Israelis had difficulty catching them..and it's hard to run fast when you're laughing..

Never fear, Israel will deal with its enemies  swiftly & effectively once again.

Shalom!

 

Disclaimer: I am not Jewish; I have no Jewish friends; I’ve never been to Israel

NiggaPleeze's picture

 

Times change.  Israel won the 1967 war due to massive US aid (including preparations for another of endless wars started by that pariah Jew supremacist state) as well as its cowardly surprise attack against Egypt's airforce, combined with the very poor command structure of the Egyptian, Jordanian and Syrian armies.

Granted, the State of Yahweh the Beast has vastly more military capabilities than its neighbors, thanks to its demonic control of US politics.  But you know what?  There are various ways to fight.  After all, Jewish lore tells us about David and Goliath.

hestroy's picture

Geez, you are really a funny filthy "chosen" one. Retard. YOu know nothing, only your "chosen" propaganda.

WOWurstupid's picture

He knows history. Every time arabs mess with israel, they get the shit kicked out of them. 

MrBoompi's picture

Regardless of the weaponry Hezbollah supposedly has, they can't beat Israel (and the US) without Russian or Chinese help. 

Truther's picture

LMFAO. They beat the fuckers (and the US pilots) back in 2006 and sent them back waling for their MAMAs. Want to bet? My worthless green back against any stoneage sheckels you got.

 

 

BandGap's picture

They didn't beat shit, and I am no Israel sympathizer. Their "victory" was not getting the shit kicked out of them.

No mention of launching rockets from civilian locations. They knew Israel wasn't going to counter with excessive force.

 

 

DisorderlyConduct's picture

But isn't that kind of the point in warfare? Get in your shots, prevent your adversary from doing the same? That sounds like superior planning to me.

It's easy to mix up a false sense of honor with what is clearly effective tactics. Sure, they attacked from a position where their enemy dared not counter. I mean, what were they *supposed* to do - stand toe-to-toe with the enemy and get mowed down?

Crazy Or Not's picture

More aysymmetic warfare coming for the next 20 years and blowback leaking into Europe/anywhere with an airport/white people ... oh fucking great.

flapdoodle's picture

In this case, a draw was a win. They bloodied the IDF's nose and the IDF had to withdraw or lose even more tanks.

The biggest loss as the article alludes to is that the aura of IDF invincibility was badly damaged and only the arrogant would underestimate its ramifications, which are MANY, none good for the pregnant Palestinian women killing IDF (google two shots - one kill)

The Jews better hope that if there is a God, he doesn't believe in Karma, as the amount of bad Karma they are carrying around would collapse an elephant.

God Emperor's picture

one shot - two kills.

Fixed it for ya

TuPhat's picture

What does that victory in a small battle mean today?  Not much.  Your viewpoint is rather narrow.

343 Guilty Spark's picture

Umm...no.  You can try to call that a victory but it wasn't by any fucking measure.  Arabs lost more people, more weapons, and more ground.  Israel lost people sure but they didn't lose as many nor did they lose access to the area.

You are going to be very very surprised if you think Hezbollah will win, especially since Israel controls the Golan Heights, which gives them a distince tactical advantage over Lebanon.

NiggaPleeze's picture

Arabs lost more people, more weapons, and more ground.

Hezbollah succeeded in their goal:  to keep the Savage Beasts of Israhell out of their country and territory.

It's possible to lose a lot more than the other side and still win.  You remember this little thing called WW II?  Compare Soviet and German losses of people, weapons, and ground, esp. during the first 2 years.  In 2006 Israel retreated.  If only all of its neighbors coudl force that nefarious Beast to retreat to the 1948 borders and beyond ....  So you see, Hezbollah has twice forced Israel out of Lebanon, doesn't mean they can invade Israel but certainly they are a force for great good in the ME.

WOWurstupid's picture

You ought to join them they are looking for 70 IQ recruits.

ShakenNotStirred's picture

These belong to the "Elite".

Those with IQ = 0.7

NiggaPleeze's picture

 

Wow, more profound wisdom from the hasbara troll.  I would certainly join Hezbollah if I lived in Lebanon, but I don't and it's not my war.  Unlike you Jew supremacist warmongers, I don't get involved in wars that are not my business.

quadraspleen's picture

o rly?! What happened at the end of Op. Cast Lead? They ran, tails between their legs when Hezbollah started firing rockets - not ones made out of broom handles like Hamas, but real live proper rockets - into Haifa. 

Blankone's picture

Supposedly the Saudi's are in on this. Which makes sense as the Saudi's, Israel and the US have sponsored ISIS.

Which brings up this little bit again, Putin/Russia has just agreed to sell the S400 to the Saudi's. Putin would have been aware of the brewing ambitions of the Saudi's/Israel to destroy Hezbollah and Iran. Those S400 are also to provide the Saudi's with protection from anything launched from Yemen. And that they will also protect the Saudi's when the war with Iran kicks off. (Putin is providing the S400 to Turkey who is no friend of Syria)

You cannot deny Putin is aiding the Saudi's at the expense of Russia's "friends" and allies. In this case those being Syria, Hezbollah/Lebanon, Iran.

Throw in the fact that Putin has refused to deliver even the S300 to Syria for their defense and it appears Russia is once again stabbing it's friends in the back again.

flapdoodle's picture

Things are never what they appear, particularly when there is an agenda to foist...

emersonreturn's picture

that of course is crucial...iran, russia & china all know what ussa & israhell have in store for them.  their choice: submit, concede & allow the petro$ to rule or stand & fight.  WC has said & i believe he's right war 3 began in sochi.  if israhell destroys lebanon it will not stop there.  israhell will never be satiated.  it will use SA treasure & bought terrorists, murikan blood & treasure to see as few jews die as possible in gaining all mena. that's the mission.  ussa simply hasn't told its drugged population it is israhell's means to that end.  

small axe's picture

Switch the names, change the alliances, and reverse the loyalties: it doesn't make any difference. The region is primed for war, and war there will be.

The bankers are ecstatic.

BennyBoy's picture

 

"People living in unstable and unpredictable countries are trying to find protection and support among their own national or religious community. Therefore it is no surprise that Hezbollah enjoys such unconditional support among the Shia of Lebanon and Syria, even if they don’t fully support the movement’s aims and mission."

Reads like the same shit in the old testament from thousands of years ago from the same dumfucking assholes. 

Send bankers and politicians to the front lines.

pynky01's picture

...yep... all dressed up and nowhere to go... can't let those old guns go to waste... "...200 million guns are loaded and satan cries take aim...I can recall might be the Stones ... marxist joos will finance both sides...see WWI WWII... the marxist jew is our enemy... remove this and we get world peace as a bonus...

Dubaibanker's picture

Hariri of Lebanon and Hadi of Yemen are both under arrest in Saudi.

The abdication of the Saudi Kingdom to the Crown Prince OR a WAR with Iran/Lebanon/Hezbollah vs Saudi/UAE/Israel/US/UK (while Yemen and ISIS are knocking on Saudi's doors) is set to begin this weekend (from what I hear). Tensions are VERY high.

Saudis are moving billions out of UAE and Saudi this WEEK.

Beirut on edge as political deadlock fuels uncertainty

On both sides of the political divide, the theory that Hariri may be under house arrest in Saudi Arabia has gained a large consensus. Hariri's own entourage expressed doubt as to when he would return to Lebanon.

SpanishGoop's picture

"In the next war Israel will face a "....complete defeat.

 

Joe A's picture

In 2012, Henry Kissinger said that Israel will not exist in ten years time. That was 5 years ago. So, how did he come to that conclusion? He must have had foresight that things in Syria would not end well for the ones fighting Assad. How did he know?

Time will tell.