Ex Bank of Canada governor Mark Carney, now Bank of England governor, holds up a gold coin
at the Royal Canadian Mint to promote the public sale of rare Canadian gold coins previously
stored at the Bank of Canada since 1935. Canadian Press/Adrian Wyld
- Upcoming Swiss vote on gold repatriation could lead to gold repatriation from Bank of Canada
- Bank of Canada only acts as gold custodian to four foreign central banks
- Switzerland, the Netherlands and Sweden say they hold gold in Ottawa
- Bank of Canada no longer a major gold custodian; Canada has virtually no gold reserves
- Gold reserves destination unknown after moved from Ottawa vault as part of Bank of Canada HQ renovation
In just three months, on November 30, the Swiss will vote in a federal referendum on the future of the country’s gold reserves.
The referendum has arisen through a popular initiative called ‘Save our Swiss gold initiative’. In Switzerland, citizens can propose changes to the Swiss constitution through a mechanism called a popular initiative, even if parliament is against the proposal.
The ‘Save Our Swiss Gold’ initiative is set to highlight the important issue of sovereign gold reserves and who has possession and controls them. It may lead to an important debate about each country’s national patrimony and their gold reserves.
The ‘Save Our Swiss Gold’ initiative is proposing the following:
- rules to prevent the Swiss National Bank (SNB) selling any more of the country’s gold reserves
- to direct that the SNB must keep a minimum of 20% of its reserves in gold, and
- to require that all Swiss gold must be stored in Switzerland.
This would require repatriation of Swiss gold since some of the Swiss gold reserves are stored abroad.
The Swiss National Bank (SNB) are against the proposal but were forced last year, in reaction to the popular campaign, to reveal the storage locations of the Swiss gold.
Gold bars and the Swiss flag
In April 2013, Thomas Jordan, SNB President, confirmed that 70% of Switzerland’s gold is in Switzerland, 20% is at the Bank of England, and 10% is stored with the Bank of Canada, and that this mix of holdings had been in place for more than a decade.
Since the Swiss hold a total of 1,040 tonnes of gold reserves, this would mean that there are 104 tonnes of Swiss gold at the Bank of Canada and 208 tonnes in the Bank of England. Jordan’s explanation of the foreign gold storage was that it provided "adequate regional diversification and good market access".
Since the Bank of England specialises in the custody of gold on behalf of numerous foreign central banks, it’s not surprising then that the SNB stores gold at the Bank of England.
What is surprising is that the SNB still holds gold at the Bank of Canada, since the Bank of Canada is a legacy custodian of other countries’ gold and appears to have stopped storing other nations sovereign gold in recent years.
When the Bank of Canada was asked earlier this year as to how many foreign central banks it acts as gold custodian for, it confirmed that it currently acts as gold custodian for only four foreign central banks, but that due to confidentiality, it was unable to disclose the identity of the national account holders.
However, its known from other sources that both the Netherlands and Sweden also hold some of their gold reserves at the Bank of Canada.
The Federal Reserve Bank of New York holds 1,536 metric tons of German gold, nearly half of Berlin’s reserves.
This enormous hoard of gold is stored in the fifth subfloor of the bank’s building on Liberty Street, 25 meters
80 feet) below street level, and 15 meters below sea level. Or is it? The Germans want to know and
want it back, as do the Swiss and other nations.
The Dutch central bank, De Nederlandsche Bank, has stated previously that most of its gold reserves are held at the Federal Reserve Bank in New York, the Bank of England, and the Bank of Canada, with less than 10% stored in the bank’s own headquarters in Amsterdam.
The Swedish Riksbank has also stated recently that its gold is stored in a number of foreign locations, such as the Federal Reserve, the Bank of England but also the Bank of Canada.
The identity of the 4th foreign central that stores gold at the Bank of Canada is unclear, but it may be the Bank of England or the Federal Reserve, since both banks historically held gold accounts with the Bank of Canada.
Given that Canada sold nearly all of its own substantial gold holdings a number of years ago, it seems like an anomaly that the Bank of Canada in Ottawa is still holding gold on behalf of other countries. Most countries that had held gold in Ottawa repatriated it long ago.
Citizens of Switzerland, the Netherlands and Sweden should be concerned that some of their nation’s gold is in custody with a bank that is no longer a specialist in gold custody and that did not even see fit to maintain its own gold reserves.
They should also be concerned about the secrecy and lack of transparency regarding their gold, especially given that the Bank of Canada's remaining custody gold has recently been moved to an unknown destination.
The Bank of Canada's headquarters on Wellington Street in Ottawa is currently undergoing an extensive multi-year renovation which required the Bank to vacate the building last year, and empty it's entire contents, including the gold stored in the subterranean vault.
Whatever gold was still in the vault, that runs from Wellington Street on one side of the building out as far as Sparks Street on the other side, has now been relocated elsewhere.
Where the gold has been moved to is unknown since the Bank of Canada won't comment.
The upcoming Swiss gold referendum will be very interesting and will highlight and focus minds on why the SNB vigorously defends the need to keep some of its gold reserves in Canada, especially given that the Ottawa gold is now on the move.
In the same way that it is important for nations to have outright, unencumbered ownership of their gold, it is vitally important for individuals to do so. GoldCore continue to advise owning allocated and segregated physical coins and bars in Hong Kong, Singapore and Zurich.
See our Essential Guide To Gold Storage In Singapore here
by Ronan Manly, GoldCore Consultant. Editor Mark O’Byrne of GoldCore
Sources available on request - email@example.com